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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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February 15th, 2013
Lecture 5: Operant Conditioning
Natural reinforcer = “unconditioned” = something that felt reinforcing to begin with
and follows naturally from the behaviour, without needing anything to be “programmed”
and put in their artificially. Can happen without anyone else being involved, no one has
to give you something to deliberately reinforce it. Ex. feeling good when you’re full, when
you kiss, etc.
oAs opposed to someone giving you a dollar for doing something for example.
Which are called programmed reinforcers = “conditioned”. Not born liking it.
Culturally-specific.
Types of Positive Reinforcers:
Tangible:
oMoney, makeup
Consumable:
oFood, drinks
Activity:
oYoga, exercise, hobbies you enjoy
Social:
oSmiles
Feedback:
oPraise, Compliments
Types of Negative Reinforcers:
Escaping Something:
oBad thing is already being experienced, and you escape from it
Avoiding Something:
oBad thing has not happened yet, and you avoid it before it does
Self-harm
Someone feels so much in emotional distress that self-harm negatively reinforces
because it serves as an escape behaviour. It can make you feel numb, in a trance,

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Description
February 15 , 2013 Lecture 5: Operant Conditioning • Natural reinforcer = “unconditioned” = something that felt reinforcing to begin with and follows naturally from the behaviour, without needing anything to be “programmed” and put in their artificially. Can happen without anyone else being involved, no one has to give you something to deliberately reinforce it. Ex. feeling good when you’re full, when you kiss, etc. o As opposed to someone giving you a dollar for doing something for example. Which are called programmed reinforcers = “conditioned”. Not born liking it. Culturally-specific. Types of Positive Reinforcers: • Tangible: o Money, makeup • Consumable: o Food, drinks • Activity: o Yoga, exercise, hobbies you enjoy • Social: o Smiles • Feedback: o Praise, Compliments Types of Negative Reinforcers: • Escaping Something: o Bad thing is already being experienced, and you escape from it • Avoiding Something: o Bad thing has not happened yet, and you avoid it before it does Self-harm • Someone feels so much in emotional distress that self-harm negatively reinforces because it serves as an escape behaviour. It can make you feel numb, in a trance, February 15 , 2013 soothed, or even just feel intense pain instead of emotional distress. And, this is only true for certain people Tips on Changing Another Person’s Behaviour • Make sure you really think about what is punishing/reinforcing to them • People will want to avoid the punisher, so nagging, etc. doesn’t really help decrease the behv. It’ll just irritate them and make them want to stay away from you, and find other ways to get you to not know what they’v e done. i.e. by lying to them. • Constantly punishing someone, where it feel
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