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Lecture 6

SOC220 Lecture 6

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
M.Young
Semester
Fall

Description
SOC220 Lecture 6 10/31/2012 Institutionalism, Ideology, Hegemony Inequality structures - Major emphasis: how is social inequality maintained? o Consider:  Structural conditions  Limited by broader structural focus  Agency Institutionalism What is it? Definition: normative system of social actions with rules, social norms, standardized behavior - How is something to be done? - How is something to be legitimated? Berger and Luckmann (1966): institutions have a history that predates our birth and thus “confront individuals as undeniable facts… [that we cannot] wish away” History matters - Giving up our “right to control” o We all voluntarily subscribe to these institutions to obtain benefits that cannot be achieved alone o Institutions are very good at managing and competing for interests o Functionalism: “biological analogy”, functions as a whole  Promoting conformity, giving up the right to control o Does not deal will with conflict - Past political and social institutions impact current political, social and economic outcomes o Marx: the struggles of the working class  Working day  Child legislation - Institutionalization assume a level of rigidity Examples: - Policies are structured by formal structures and rules and procedures - Institutions shape individuals through cognitive scripts that provides the frame of reference within which behavior is interpreted o “if you have a hammer, everything looks like a nail - Path dependency: implies that the past trajectory or context of situation will condition future trajectories in a way that does not preclude unintended consequences or inefficiencies o Increasing returns o Example: the relationship; legal, moral, social aspects o Harder to move back trajectory, the cost is higher and higher, at certain critical junctures, new institutions and arrangements pop up to reinforce Hegemony and Ideology Hegemony: the reproduction of power of a dominant state or person - The key aspect: reproduction of power is not through force or domination o Active consent o The mobilization and production of the active consent of the masses Two levels: 1. The state: official organs o Government 2. Civil society (private or non-state): when the mass consents to the general direction imposed on them by the ruling group o Family, media, education, everything else - Gives a lot of consent to the leaders through, political, economic, education, moral spheres Video: Free markers depend on state intervention - Intimate connection between the state and the economy Hegemony - Gramsci: it is the role of intellectuals of the ruling class to create a hegemony o Creating a active consent, no force is applied o Philosophy, science, arts o Educational system, cultural institutions, media o Two types of intellectual 1. Traditional a. Gone through the proper trainings
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