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Woodsworth College Courses
Sandra Bucerius

W3 WDW380H The kinds of crimes women engage in are different then men In what way was Adler’s liberation hypothetic a feminist perspective of crime? Some important terms:  Sex  Gender  Essentialist perspective (see slide)  Social constructionists (see slide) A social construction perspective on women’s involvement in crime: The female emancipation or liberation hypothesis  The women’s movement was about challenging claims/ they critiqued essentialist views/ a lot of the inequalities tend to be viewed as a function of sex difference/  so say that no! Gender is social construction  Adler: not first to argue that sex difference in crime is influenced in crime. She developed argument that sex differences in crime are a function of socially constructed gender difference not innate biological and psychological differences between females and males o Women commit less crime then men because od differences in socialization, in informal controls (girls tend to be more supervised and control by families and more controlled and kept compliant), differences in opportunities (women have fewer opportunities to commit crime) o Why was her work controversial?  She linked it to women liberation female emancipation This would lead to a decreased and eliminate a different between women and men in crime o Criminologist did not fully embrace her ideas (didn’t challenge the difference) they challenged that lessening gender inequality, would women crime would become more like men. Main stream criminologist critiqued her on empirical and logical grounds o Feminist criminology: she may encourage a hold back and linked a negative side, if women become more like men/ how much gender equality change did we see? /women were not liberated they saw a double burden put on them/ Adler is missing a critical point, what kind of women are benefiting (not black women), it was middle white liberation for the women, not everyone and affecting the kind of women who were least inclined to commit crime o Adler was assuming that male behavior were human behavior, and not gendered being, the lives that fully human beings lived (male are taken as the standards) and ignored the fact that males are gendered too!  Adler thesis was largely rejected, but the reasoning behind it still had appeal. Her work is still important (she moved theorist away from essentialist views) Prior to the 1960, most theories of women’s involvement in crime were essentialist in nature  Most who studied crime and criminal, they ignored crimes by women/ when they did pay attention to female crime, they assumed the reason they commit less crime but because of sex, not gender difference (innate biological and physical differences for man)  Lombroso & Ferrero: first to pay attention to female crime/ women committed less crime, because fundamentally females were more conservative in nature/ women are like the ovule et man like spermatozoid, reflected in the nature of the human/ thought wom
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