MOS 2181 -- October 26, 2011
What is Leadership?
- ability to inspire confidence & support among the people who are needed to achieve org. goals
Characteristics and Behaviours of a Leader
- ambition and energy
- empathy, honesty, integrity
- emotional intelligence
- job-relevant knowledge
- flexible behaviour
EBM Claim #1 - Traits Alone Cannot Predict Leadership Success
- original theory of leadership
- leadership success is complex and involves many factors ... traits just being one!
EBM Claim #2 - Behaviour Theory of Leadership-
- Do certain behaviours create better leaders than others? (Task v. People oriented...consideration v.
initiating structure) Findings were mixed - some leaders need to consider both task-oriented and
employee-oriented behaviours.Also, it can depend on the situation
- Contingent leader reward behaviour was found to be positively related to employee
perceptions (highest trust in supervisor), positive attitudes (greater job satisfaction)
How can Situations Affect the Outcome of Leadership Efforts?
Traits and behaviour theories gave way to situational theories:
Fiedler Contingency Model & CRT
House’s Path Goal
EBM Claim #3 - Situational Theories of Leadership
- Fielder’s LPC Theory was OK but replaced by CRT - Cognitive Resource Theory --> states
experience predicts performance in high-stress situations; intelligence predicts performance in low-stress
- House’s Path Goal - Strong Evidence - supportive or considerate leader behaviour is most
beneficial in supervising routine, frustrating or dissatisfying jobs
Some Evidence: for the connection between supportive and considerate leadership
- Path Goal can predict employees’job satisfaction and acceptance of the leader because of
participative behaviour ... not so much predicting job performance (pg. 301)
*Leader is different and more special than manager. Leaders make a difference
...leaders establish direction by developing a vision of the future, then they align people by
communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles.
Transactional Leaders -guide/ motivate their followers in direction of established goals by clarifying role/ task requirements
Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma
- David Suzuki ; Steve Jobs ; Oprah ; Obama
1. Become aware of your own behaviour
2. Set goals
3. Performance appraisals that measure and reward such behaviours
4. Find a culture that encourages creative ideas
Inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interest for the good of the cause/organization