ORGS 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Work Unit, Transformational Leadership, Job Satisfaction

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ORGS Session 5 Notes
Chapter 12: Leadership Styles and Behaviours
Leadership Styles and Behaviours
-Leadership: the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal
achievement
- That direction can affect followers’ interpretation of events, the organization of their work
activities, their commitment to key goals, their relationships with other followers and their
access to cooperation and support from other work units
- leaders can use their power and influence effectively
- leaders can be judged by objective evaluations of unit performance: profit margins, market
share, sakes, returns on investment, productivity, quality, costs in relation to budgeted
expenditures, etc
-Leader-member exchange theory: a theory describing how leader-member relationships
develop over time on a dyadic basis
- Argues that new leader-member relationships are typically marked by the role taking phase
-Role taking: the phase in a leader-follower relationship when a leader provides an employee
with job expectations and the follower tries to meet those expectations
- The leader tries to get a feel for the talent and motivation levels of the employee
-Role making: the phase in a leader-follower relationship when a follower voices his or her own
expectations for the relationship, resulting in a free-flowing exchange of opportunities and
resources for activities and effort
- there are 2 types of leader-member dyads
1) High quality exchange (ingroup): higher levels of communication, mutual trust, respect and
obligation
2) Lower quality exchange (outgroup): limited exchange of information, influence, latitude,
support and attention
Why Are Some Leaders More Effective Than Others?
-Leadership effectiveness: the degree to which the leader’s actions result in the achievement of
the unit’s goals, the continued commitment of the unit’s employees, and the development of
mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader-member dyads
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- There is no general profile of effective leaders from a trait perspective
-Leader emergence: the process of becoming a leader in the first place
- Traits are more productive of leader emergence than they are of leader effectiveness
Leader Decision-Making Styles
1) Autocratic Style
the leader makes the decision alone without asking for opinions or suggestions of the
employees in the work unit
Employees may provide information the leader needs, but they are not asked to
generate or evaluate potential solutions
May not even be told about the decision
2) Consultative Style
The leader presents the problem to employees asking for their opinions and suggestions
before ultimately making the decisions him- or herself
Employees have a say, but authority still rests with the leader
3) Facilitative Style
Leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a
solution, making sure his or her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone
else’s
Leader is more of a facilitator than decision maker
4) Delegative Style
Leader gives the employee the responsibility for making decisions within some set of
specified boundary conditions
Leader plays no role unless asked, though they may offer insight and resources
What Styles are More Effective?
- No one style is the best
- Allowing employees to participate in decision making increases job satisfaction
- Also helps develop employees’ own decision-making skills
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