COMPSCI 1BA3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Relational Database Management System, Sans-Serif, Railways Act 1921


Department
Computer Science
Course Code
COMPSCI 1BA3
Professor
C S1 B A3 Administrative Details
Study Guide
Midterm

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Computer Science 1BA3: Midterm #2 Study Notes
Unit #1: HTML - XHTML
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language): the authoring language used to create Web
pages, and is intended to describe the content and structure of a Web document.
Living language; continues to be revised by the international World Wide Web
Consortium (w3c.org)
Basic text file, simple editor for text files (ex. Notepad in Windows, .txt)
Way that text and graphics on Web pages must be formatted
HTML does NOT equal programming language
Uses computer code
Series of instructions that renders (displays exact likeliness of) the content of your
Web Page in Browser
You create code to describe the structure of a web page in terms of
paragraphs, lists, forms, etc.
Guidelines for writing HTML Documents:
Use LOWERCASE when entering HTML tags and attributes
Close all tags, including empty elements
Enclose attribute values in quotes
When nesting tags, the first tag opened must be the last tag closed
Use hard returns, spaces, and tabs to keep your HTML code neat and readable
Do not use spaces in folders or file names
Test your code on several different browsers and browser versions
Internet: global network of computers linked by high-speed data lines and wireless
systems
World Wide Web (WWW): just one of several services provided by the internet
Web Browser: software used to view and browse, or “surf” web pages
1st commercially available browser: Netscape Navigator
Contemporary browsers: Internet Explorer (Microsoft), Safari (Apple), Mozilla
Firefox, Google Chrome
Web Page Designer: person who designs web pages (works w/ Adobe Dreamweaver,
Photoshop, etc.)
Web Page Developer: writes programming code to add greater functionality to Web
Pages (works w/programming languages; Javascript, PHP, etc.)
Web Page „Devsigner‟: developer and designer
World Wide Web Consortium (w3c): organization whose full-time staff works to develop
standards for the many languages used on the World Wide Web, including HTML
standard
Recommendation: when w3c finalizes a draft; is currently developing HTML 5.0

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New browsers must be developed that will support (make use of) new features of
HTML 5.0
HTML Extensions: code that would work only in their own browser, but not both = cross-
browser incompatibility
Netscape and Microsoft browser vendors, 1990s
One company gets competitive advantage over the other
Hypertext: is a way to organize information so that you can click links and view Web
content in a non-sequential manner (view topics/pages on Web in any order of
preference)
Markup: refers to the symbols in HTML code that indicate how the text or images should
appear in a browser (inserting codes in text file interpreted by browser)
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML): specifies that the code to display
content on Web pages must follow certain rules
Variation of HTML
how HTML should be written/structured
current version = 1.1
IT IS: uniformly and consistently delivers Web Page content
IS NOT: complex text formatting, composing images, manipulating data; line
spacing, tab indents
TEXT EDITOR (to compose/edit webpage in HTML) such as MICROSOFT NOTEPAD
Syntax: specific rules for the way code should be written
Mock-up: hand-drawn/typed plan for a page
TYPING THE CODE FOR XHTML TAGS, AND TYPING BASIC XHTML TAGS
Code for element that has both start and end tags: <tag1>content<tag2>
Typing code for an empty element: has no content, only has a start tag (<tag/> )
Nested Element: appears with another element, nested tags
o <strong><em> Nyce Paints </strong><em>
MUST type code in lowercase (unlike HTML)
Type tags FIRST, then the content
XHTML Element: creates structure on a Web Page, conveys formatting instructions to the
browser, or conveys information about the Web Page to the browser or search engines
EX: <tag1>content<tag2>
Tag: Representation of an element in XHTML code
<em> = emphasizes text; makes text appear in italics
<br/> = break element; used to create a new line
End tags have a forward slash ( / ) before the element name
Document Type Declaration: an instruction that associates a particular Web Page with
a Document Type Definition
Document Type Definition (DTD): instruction to the browser that determines the extent to
which the Web Page should follow the XHTML standard; “DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict”
Most common = transitional and strict
o Transitional renders all elements

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o Strict renders only code that EXACTLY conforms to the XHTML syntax (no
deprecated code)
Deprecated Code: code w3c has determined should no longer be used
Quirks Mode: different browsers may render your Web Pages differently (no “Document
Type Declaration”)
Standards Mode: has a “DTD”, ensures page is consistent as possible in all browsers
HTML Element: root element, container for all the other elements on a Web Page;
points to Web Site anyone can access
„Head‟ Section: contains XHTML code that does not appear in browsers document
window; which is the part of the browser window where Web Pages appear (container
for info. about document)
Metadata: information about the document itself, such as keywords, author of Web
Page, description of content on Web page (“meta” = empty element)
Character Set: one of many standardized ways to represent characters for
communication and storage
ISO-8859-1 , UFT-8 = larger set of characters, universal Unicode
Body Element: container for all of the page content; code, text, images, in document
window in browser
White Space: blank lines/indenting, any part of the page that does not have content
(space, tab, enter keys)
Eye Line: vertical area of code where you can easily see start tags
File Servers: computers that store files you see on the Web
Attribute: defines a change to an element. Each attribute has a value (adjective) that
describes the extent to or manner in which the element will be changed.
EX: src=”nyce logo.gif”
SRC = source attribute, “nyce logo.gif” = value of source attribute (name of
image file that should appear on webpage)
Web Page Accessibility: the extent to which a Web Page is accessible by as many
people as possible despite visual or motor skill impairment.
Screen Reader: Software that uses a synthesized voice to read aloud the text in the
browser‟s document window.
Width/Height Attribute: specify dimensions of an image (usually in pixel values)
Aspect Ratio: relationship between width/height of the image
To scale = change width/height
INCLUDING COMMENTS IN XHTML DOCUMENT
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