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Chapter 2: Technology Essentials

7 Pages
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Department
Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 102
Professor
David Atkinson

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CHAPTER 2 TECHNOLOGY ESSENTIALS
THE COMPONENTS OF IT
IT consists of three basic categories: hardware, software, and network
HARDWARE components represent physical (hard) parts of a system; consist primarily of
electronic devices (mostly digital) with some electromechanical parts used with input, output, and
storage devices
Six basic IT hardware categories:
1. PROCESSING HARDWARE directs execution of instructions and transformation
of data using transistors
Transistor is an electrical switch that can either be on (represented by 1) or
off (represented by 0)
Microchip is a tiny chip made up of transistors; microchip contains most of
the components that make up the central processing unit (CPU)
Clock speed is measured in megaherts (MHz), millions of cycles per second,
or gigahertz (GHz), billions of cycles per second
Computer hierarchy: categorizes processors according to their power
Processing power often corresponds to computer’s physical size
Embedded processors are programmable chips built into products include
digital signal processors (DSPs); DSPs are special microprocessors that
include more math-related functions in instruction set
COMPUTER HIERARCHY
COMPUTER TYPERELATIVE PROCESSING
POWER
PURPOSE
Supercomputer Largest and fastestPerforms processor intensive
computations using parallel processing
MainframeLargeCarries out organizational processing
needs using high-speed processing chips
and large amounts of memory
Server farmsMedium/many Multiple servers to handle network
processing activities
Personal computer (PC)Small to medium Carry out processing tasks needed to
perform their jobs; usually networking
together
Personal digital
assistant
(PDA)/Smartphones
Very small Portable computing power; used to
communicate with PC or other users
Embedded processorsExtremely small Low-scale processing and/or identication;
embedded in appliances and products
2. MEMORY temporarily locates data and instructions before processing
Read only memory (ROM): contains instructions and data that only special
devices can alter; long term memory
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Random access memory (RAM): stores data only until they are no longer
needed, or until computer shuts down; short-term memory
Memory capacity measured as number of bytes that chip stores (KB, MB,
GB)
3. INPUT HARDWARE provides interface used for data entry into a device (i.e.
keyboard, mouse)
4. OUTPUT HARDWARE provides interface used to retrieve information from a
device (i.e. printer, MP3)
Convert IT-processed information into usable form (i.e. monitor)
5. STORAGE HARDWARE stores data, information and instructions for the long term
(i.e. CDs, USB flash drive)
6. COMMUNICATION HARDWARE connects one IT device to another
Network interface card (NIC): physical connection between a computer and
a local network
Modems: (wired or wireless) allows connection to remote network over
telecommunication line
Converts (modulates) digital signals going out from computer into
analog signal appropriate for connection medium
Receiving signal, converts (demodulates) analog signal back into
digital signal that computer can recognize
SOFTWARE information that specifies how hardware device should work with other
data, information, and knowledge
Software divided into three main categories:
1. SYSTEM SOFTWARE any software required to control hardware components and
support the execution of application software (i.e. Windows Vista, Windows 7)
Operating system (OS) software: coordinates and handles details of
working with computer hardware; two main functions:
i.Managing hardware and software resources of computer
ii.Providing stable and consistent interface between application
programs and hardware
Utility software: provides additional tools that can be used to maintain and
service your system (i.e. firewall)
2. APPLICATION SOFTWARE complete, self-contained program or set of programs
for performing specific jobs
Productivity software: efficiently and effectively work with data,
information, and knowledge
i.Document preparation software
ii.Electronic spreadsheet software
iii.Presentation graphic software
iv. Database management system (DBMS)
v. Personal information management (PIM)
3. MIDDLEWARE link application that use dissimilar software or hardware platforms
and act like specialized messenger/translator to manage exchange of information
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Description
CHAPTER 2 TECHNOLOGY ESSENTIALS THE COMPONENTS OF IT IT consists of three basic categories: hardware, software, and network HARDWARE components represent physical (hard) parts of a system; consist primarily of electronic devices (mostly digital) with some electromechanical parts used with input, output, and storage devices Six basic IT hardware categories: 1. PROCESSING HARDWARE directs execution of instructions and transformation of data using transistors Transistor is an electrical switch that can either be on (represented by 1) or off (represented by 0) Microchip is a tiny chip made up of transistors; microchip contains most of the components that make up the central processing unit (CPU) Clock speed is measured in megaherts (MHz), millions of cycles per second, or gigahertz (GHz), billions of cycles per second Computer hierarchy: categorizes processors according to their power Processing power often corresponds to computers physical size Embedded processors are programmable chips built into products include digital signal processors (DSPs); DSPs are special microprocessors that include more math-related functions in instruction set COMPUTER HIERARCHY COMPUTER TYPE RELATIVE PROCESSING PURPOSE POWER Supercomputer Largest and fastest Performs processor intensive computations using parallel processing Mainframe Large Carries out organizational processing needs using high-speed processing chips and large amounts of memory Server farms Medium/many Multiple servers to handle network processing activities Personal computer (PC) Small to medium Carry out processing tasks needed to perform their jobs; usually networking together Personal digital Very small Portable computing power; used to assistant communicate with PC or other users (PDA)/Smartphones Embedded processors Extremely small Low-scale processing and/or identication; embedded in appliances and products 2. MEMORY temporarily locates data and instructions before processing Read only memory (ROM): contains instructions and data that only special devices can alter; long term memory www.notesolution.com Random access memory (RAM): stores data only until they are no longer needed, or until computer shuts down; short-term memory Memory capacity measured as number of bytes that chip stores (KB, MB, GB) 3. INPUT HARDWARE provides interface used for data entry into a device (i.e. keyboard, mouse) 4. OUTPUT HARDWARE provides interface used to retrieve information from a device (i.e. printer, MP3) Convert IT-processed information into usable form (i.e. monitor) 5. STORAGE HARDWARE stores data, information and instructions for the long term (i.e. CDs, USB flash drive) 6. COMMUNICATION HARDWARE connects one IT device to another Network interface card (NIC): physical connection between a computer and a local network Modems: (wired or wireless) allows connection to remote network over telecommunication line Converts (modulates) digital signals going out from computer into analog signal appropriate for connection medium Receiving signal, converts (demodulates) analog signal back into digital signal that computer can recognize SOFTWARE information that specifies how hardware device should work with other data, information, and knowledge Software divided in
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