MHR 650 Study Guide - Paradigm Shift, Role Model, Scientific Management

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26 Sep 2012
Ch 8: Implementing Change: Change Management, Contingency, and Processual Approaches
Director Image of Managing Change: Change Management and Contingency Approaches
- Provide multistep models of how to achieve large-scale, transformational change
Kotter’s Eight Step Change Management Model
1. Establish the need for
- Perform market analyses
- Determine problems and opportunities
- Use techniques to focus people’s attention on the importance of change to meet these challenges
2. Ensure there is a
powerful change group
to guide the change
- Create team structures to help drive the change
- Ensure teams have sufficient power to achieve the desired change
3. Develop a vision
- Develop a vision that provides a focus for the change
4. Communicate the
- Role model the behaviour implied by the vision
- Use multiple channels to constantly communicate the vision
5. Empower staff
- Remove organizational policies and structures that inhibit achievement of the vision
- Encourage risk taking
6. Ensure there are short
term wins
- Wins help support need for change
- Rewarding “wins” helps to provide motivation
7. Consolidate gains
- Continue to remove organizational policies and processes that inhibit change
- Reward those who engage positively with the change
- Establish new, related change projects
8. Embed the change in
the culture
- Link change to organizational performance and leadership
Contingency Approaches
Five main change approaches (Dunphy/Stace)
- There is constant change as a result of the organization adapting itself to external, environmental changes
- Primary style of leadership is consultative, where the leader acts in the capacity of a coach aiming to gain voluntary, shared
commitment from organizational members to the need for continual improvement
Task focused
- The change management style is directive with the change leader acting as captain seeking the compliance of organizational
members to redefine how the organization operates in specific areas
- While directive leadership means that the overall change is driven from top, this may translate into a more consultative
approach by managers operating lower down in the organization who are required to implement changes
- People accept that the organization is out of step with its environment and that there is a need for radical, revolutionary
- Helping to create a new identity and paradigm shift in the way in which the organization conducts its operations, the
charismatic leader is able to operate symbolically to gain emotional commitment of staff to new directions
- Aimed at frame breaking changes
- Operate as commanders utilizing their positions of power to force required changes through the organization
- Fine tuning, paternalistic approaches to managing change
Change into four ideal types of categories (Huy)
- Time period is shirt term, abrupt, and rapid
- Change is usually implemented by senior executives who demand compliance from organizational members
- Changes may well include downsizing, outsourcing and divestments
- Oriented toward a medium term, relatively fast change perspective and often assisted by work design analysts who assist in
changing work and operational systems
- The change agent acts as an analyst in this process
- Takes more gradual, longer term OD change perspective
- Assisted by outside process consultants, staff are taught how to probe their work practices and behaviours to reveal new
ways of working
- Also gradual and long term
- Sees change as developing through participative experimental learning based on self monitoring, democratic organizational
Navigator Images of Managing Change: Processual Approaches
Stages to engaging in management of change
1. Problem solving important in highly political environment. This entails signaling and spreading throughout the organization, through
discussion and decision making, the legitimacy of certain problems requiring attention.
2. Development of concern about problem, a process that involves establishing broad buy in at variety of levels throughout the organization.
This is an educational process entailing meetings and data integration and providing space and opportunity for people to challenge
conventional wisdom
3. Gaining acknowledgment and understanding of the importance of the problem persistent championing role and is important to enable new
rationalities to emerge alongside new diagnoses of problems and solutions
4. Planning and acting stage involves clarifying future directions and objectives and putting in place transition managers to enable the transition
to occur. This involves senior management establishing a tension within the organization between the current state if things and what is needed
for the future; middle managers need to use this tension to create momentum for change through establishing targets and the like
5. Stabilizing change or “making things which happen stick,” including changing the organization’ systems (HR, IT etc.) in order to reinforce and
support the changes
Ten Lessons
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