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MKT500 Exam Review - Ch. 6,9,10,11,13.docx

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MKT 500
Helene Moore

Wk. 3 – Chapter 6 – Quantitative Collection methods Lecture on: September 18, 2012 On-site research 1. Stream of consciousness interview 2. Spontaneous reaction interview 3. Directed general response interview 4. Directed specific response interview 5. Prompted reaction to execution elements - Survey: involves interviews with a large number of respondents using a predesigned questionnaire - Chapter focuses on methods to collect data using surveys Four data collection modes 1. Have a person ask the questions, either face-to-face or over the phone, without computer assistance (person-administered) 2. Have a computer or direct questioning in face-to-face, voice, or other survey (computer- administered) 3. Respondents fill in their own survey, without computer assistance (self-administered) 4. Combination of two or more (mixed-mode surveys) - Person-administered surveys, without computer assistance: o Advantages: feedback, rapport, quality control, adaptability o Disadvantages: humans make errors, slow speed, high cost, interview evaluation (presence of another person may create apprehension) - Computer-administered surveys: o Advantages: speed; error-free interviews; use of pictures, videos, and graphics; real- time data capture; reduction of anxieties caused by “interview apprehension o Disadvantages: technical skill required, high set up costs - Self-administered surveys: o Advantages: reduced cost, respondent control, no interview evaluation apprehension o Disadvantages: respondent control, lack of monitoring, high questionnaire requirements - Mixed-mode surveys: o Advantages: Can take advantages of each of the survey modes to achieve their data collection goals o Disadvantages: mode affects response?, additional complexity Descriptions of data collection methods - Person administered: o In-home interview o Mall-intercept interview o In-office interview o “Traditional” phone interview o Central location telephone interview - Computer administered: o Computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) o Fully computerized interview (not online) o Online and other internet-based surveys - Self-administered: o Group self-administered survey o Drop-off survey o Mail survey Ethics in marketing research - Sugging – soliciting under the guise of interviewing - Mugging – marketing under the guise of interviewing Choice of survey method - The survey data collection time horizon o Traditionally telephone surveys were good for time constraints o Online is even better - The survey data collection method o Mail survey – very inexpensive, but low response rate o Online is also an option - Incidence rate: percentage of the population that possesses some characteristic necessary to be included in the survey - Advantages and disadvantages of all on page 218 - review Wk. 3 – Chapter 9 – Sampling Lecture on: September 18, 2012 **explore XL Data Analyst Basic concepts in samples and sampling - Population: entire group under study as specified by the research project - Sample: subset of the population that would represent the entire group - Census: defined as an accounting of everyone in the population - Sampling error: o The method of sample selection o The size of the sample - Sample frame: master list of all members of the population Determining size of a sample 2 2 - How to calculate sample size – n=(z (pq)/e ) - Sample size adjustment formula: o Adjusted sample size = calculated sample size * (1/incidence rate %) * (1/response rate %) - Sometimes sample size must be adjusted because of time pressure, cost constraint, study objectives, and data analysis procedures How to select a representative sample - Probability sampling: o Simple random sampling: random digit dialling, table of random numbers, etc.  Probability of selection = sample size/population size o Systematic sampling: “skip interval” – every third person for example  Skip interval = population list size/sample size o Cluster sampling: population is divided in similar groups – researcher can select few clusters or draw samples from each cluster  Area sampling: researcher divides the population to be surveyed into geographic areas such as census tracts, cities, neighborhoods etc.  One-step area sampling: researcher may believe the various geographic areas to be sufficiently identical to permit them to concentrate on one area and then generalize the results to the full population  Two-step area sampling: choose random sample of areas, and then decide on a probability method to sample individuals within the chosen areas o Stratified sampling: if the population is believed to have a skewed distribution for one of more of its distinguishing factors, the researcher identifies subpopulations called strata. A random sample if taken from each stratum.  Weighted average = average population(Average a(Population )a+ (Average )bPopulation ) b  Surrogate measure: some observable or easily determined characteristic of each population member is used to help separate the population members into their various subgroupings  Proportionate stratified sample: when strata sample sizes are faithful to their relative sizes in the population, and you do not need to use the weighted average here  Disproportionate stratified sample: when the strata sizes do not reflect their relative proportions in the population, and the weighted average formula must be used - Non-probability sampling methods: o Take less effort, are faster, and cost less. But at the cost of representativeness o Convenience samples o Judgement samples  Very subjective o Referral samples  “Snowball sample” o Quota samples  Often used as a means of ensuring that convenience samples will have the desired proportions of different respondent classes, reducing the sample selection error but not eliminating it Online sampling techniques - Random online intercept sampling: relies on a random selection of website visitors o If it incorporates a skip interval – systematic sample o If the sample program treats the population of website visitors like strata – stratified o If the population isn’t website visitors and the website is being used because it has many visitors – convenience sample - Invitation online sampling o When potential respondents are alerted that they may fill out a questionnaire that is hosted at a specific website (retail store receipts) - Online panel sampling o Respondent panels that are set up by marketing research companies for the explicit purpose or conducting online surveys with representative samples Ethical considerations in surveys using cellphones - Cellphone surveys are inherently unsafe - Cellphone surveys are unevenly expensive for respondents - Most cellphone surveys are not brief - Cellphone users are disproportionately nonadults Wk. 8 – Chapter 10 – Data collection and basic descriptive statistics Lecture on: October 30, 2012 Errors encountered in the data collection stage - Nonsampling errors o Intentional fieldworker errors o Unintentional fieldworker errors - Respondent errors o Intentional respondent errors o Unintentional respondent errors - Data collection errors with online surveys o Multiple submissions by the same respondent o Bogus respondents and/or responses o Misrepresentation of population - Types of nonresponse: o Refusal – declines to participate in the surve
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