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Organic Chemistry lab 1.docx

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Experiment 1 Extraction and Thin Layer ChromatographyIntroductionChromatography is a useful tool in chemistry and can be very helpful in determining the composition of an unknown sampleIn chromatography there are two phases a mobile phase and a stationary phaseThe silica gel of the TLC plates is the stationary phase and the solvent is the mobile phaseSince silica gel is a very polar organic compound polar molecules will move more slowly up the TLC plates than nonpolar molecules The solvent moves through the stationary phase through capillary action and draws the sample up with itThe different components will separate based on polarity and solubility leaving small dots that can be seen through the use of UV light The distance these dots traveled through the silica gel divided by the distance the solvent traveled will give the Rf values of the compoundsExtraction is also another important tool in chemistry used to separate compounds based on solubilitySolubility refers to the polarity of certain molecules and their infinity for one anotherIn general polar molecules are soluble in polar substances while nonpolar molecules are insoluble and will form a separate layer in the mixture There are two phases involved in extraction the organic and aqueous phaseThe goal of extraction is to move compounds from one phase to another while leaving impurities behindThe compound in question will be distributed between the two phases and can be described using the equilibrium coefficient KDW1V1KDW2V2Normally several extractions will be needed in order to remove impurities and obtain accurate results
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