Exam Study Guide - Cholera, Influenza, HIV/AIDS, Plagues without Germs

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Health Studies
Caroline Barakat

Cholera Until the 19 century Miasmatists Contagionists Pettenkofer (1818 1901) Believed in the germ theory - steadfastly refused to believe in the announced by Pasteur (1862) germ theory Koch and Hansen - drunk a vial of bacteria contaminated Diseases spread from person to water person by an infectious agent Disease caused by bad vapors Epidemiology History of cholera is described as the history of pandemics 7 pandemics 1) 1816 1821: originated in India (River Ganges) and was spread by mainly by British troops, headquarters in Bengal 2) Second pandemic: 1829 1851: more widespread, reaching Europe, Canada, and the US - 1831 mortality of 13% in Cairo, Egypt - 1832 3: 60,000 death in England disease known as King Cholera - In 1849 called Americas greatest scourge 3) 1852 1859: Scientific advances in understanding Cholera 4) 1863 1873 5) 1881 1896: hygienic measures stopped its spread to N America 6) 1899 1923: for the most part missed the western hemisphere 7) 1961 - ongoing Series of epidemics: - 1961: Celebes Islands, Asia, Middle East - 1992: aboard a flight from S America to the US - 1990s: 200,000 in SE Asia - 1994: Zaire, killed 50,000 Rwandan refugees in 21 days - 2000: Africa Etiology During the 5 epidemic (1883) Koch dispatched to Egypt to isolate the microbe Able to see the bacteria in feces of 12 patients Vibrio cholerae (due to its vibrating wiggles) Incubation period few hours to 5 days 139 different serogroups V. cholerae must itself be infected with two viruses: - One has a gene that codes for the cholera toxin www.notesolution.com
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