Culture - Review Sheet .docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Culture  Culture = an even changing, constructive stimulus which shapes the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world. It is dynamic, influenced by members of the culture and influences the members of the culture. o Nationality = the country you were born in o Ethnicity = your cultural heritage o Identification = the degree to which you include group membership in your self-concept or sense of who you are o Meaning System  Symbols, language, experiences  Metaphysics = beliefs about the world, universe, & existence  Describing Culture o Individualism/Collectivism  Individualist Cultures: Emphasize person achievement, even at the expense of other, greater emphasis on competition.  Ex: Canada, Western Europe  Collectivist Cultures: Emphasize social roles and collective responsibilities, even at the expense of the individual. Greater emphasis on co-operation.  Ex: China, Korea, Latin America o Political Climate  Political structure greatly constrains behaviors and cultural expression.  Sometimes government change can extinguish a culture. o Religious Beliefs  Dominant religious beliefs characterize a culture’s moral reasoning and motivations.  Religion also affects social roles and norms. o Ecological Differences  Environmental context shapes the development and focus of a culture.  Language Issues o Translation Efficacy (i.e. “Lost in Translation”): Is the meaning of our words “lost in translation” when we translate from one language to another?  Lost In Translation: While we may call objects by different names, we group them similarly. o Back Translation = translating a word, phrase, or sentence multiple times between two languages until both translations yield the same phrase.  Processes: 1. Translation from Language 1 to Language 2 2. Translate from Language 2 to Language 1 3. Repeat until all discrepancies have been fixed  How Does Culture Affect Us? o Cognitive/Perception  Cognitive Framing = the perceptual framework through which you view the world. Affects the attributions made for events.  Cultural Primes = Priming someone with a familiar icon of their culture will temporarily increase their identification with that c
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