Culture = an even changing, constructive stimulus which shapes the way individuals
perceive and contribute to the world. It is dynamic, influenced by members of the
culture and influences the members of the culture.
o Nationality = the country you were born in
o Ethnicity = your cultural heritage
o Identification = the degree to which you include group membership in your
self-concept or sense of who you are
o Meaning System
Symbols, language, experiences
Metaphysics = beliefs about the world, universe, & existence
Individualist Cultures: Emphasize person achievement, even at the
expense of other, greater emphasis on competition.
Ex: Canada, Western Europe
Collectivist Cultures: Emphasize social roles and collective
responsibilities, even at the expense of the individual. Greater
emphasis on co-operation.
Ex: China, Korea, Latin America
o Political Climate
Political structure greatly constrains behaviors and cultural expression.
Sometimes government change can extinguish a culture.
o Religious Beliefs
Dominant religious beliefs characterize a culture’s moral reasoning
Religion also affects social roles and norms.
o Ecological Differences
Environmental context shapes the development and focus of a culture.
o Translation Efficacy (i.e. “Lost in Translation”): Is the meaning of our words
“lost in translation” when we translate from one language to another?
Lost In Translation: While we may call objects by different names, we
group them similarly.
o Back Translation = translating a word, phrase, or sentence multiple times
between two languages until both translations yield the same phrase.
1. Translation from Language 1 to Language 2
2. Translate from Language 2 to Language 1
3. Repeat until all discrepancies have been fixed
How Does Culture Affect Us?
Cognitive Framing = the perceptual framework through which you
view the world. Affects the attributions made for events. Cultural Primes = Priming someone with a familiar icon of
their culture will temporarily increase their identification with