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University of Toronto St. George

Topic 7Motivation Emotion Healthwellbeing MotivationRewards and punishmentsPeople may sacrifice some of their morals for money Wont be performing properly if you are not motivatedThings such as money sex as motivators can work in the shortrun but not really in the long runGoals and MotivationOne of the bestdeveloped literatures in psychology has to do with how people motivate themselves and are motivated by others with the roles that motivational structures like goals play in determining our behaviours thoughts emotions health etcAnd despite the earl dominance of behaviourist approaches psychologists how recognize the intimate role that topdown process ie meaning construal interpretation play in determination how our motivational systems functionIe beating kids for bad behaviour will may not punish the behaviour the children will try to avoid getting caughtObjective incentive is better than subjective behaviourIe playing sports some pay for passion others for pay checksWhat to conclude after this brief introduction to the field of psychologyWe have some new insight into who we areA dynamic process of communication and interaction with othersWho we are is largely what we practice Thus the individual can change themselves and their culture by changing these processes of communicationMotivation ExampleAn old man lived alone on a street where boys played noisily every afternoon The din annoyed him so one day he called the boys to his door He told them he loved the cheerful sound of childrens voices and promised them each 50 cents if they would return the next day Next afternoon the youngsters raced back and played more lustily than ever The old man paid them and promised another reward the next day Again they returned whooping it up and the man again paid them this time 25 cents The following day they got only 15 cents and the man explained that his meagre resources were being exhausted Please though would you come to play for 10 cents tomorrow The disappointed boys told the man they would not be back It wasnt worth the effort they said to play all afternoon at his house for only 10 cents Giving rewards for something people will doyou will take away that intrinsic motivationSome meanings change motivation change overjustification effect Old man paying 15 cents for kids to play at his house decreases to 10 cents kids lose interestOverjustification Effect1973markersgood player awardThe continuum of MotivationSelfdetermined vs not selfdetermined External regulation rewards punishments authority command social pressure etc every strong in the shortterm but very weak in the long termIntrojected regulation partial internalization of rewardpunishment contingent selfesteem egoinvolvementIdentified regulation and integrated regulation personal valuation and importance integration with values life goals selfconcept etc every sustainable doesnt really need any external exportIntrinsic regulation intrinsic motivation doing for the sake of doing engagement flow enjoyment growth challenge etcThe source of ones motivationsIntrinsic vs extrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges to extend and exercise ones capacities to explore and to learnDoing for the sake of doingOR for the sake of meaning integrity values purposeIntrinsic motivation is selfdirected and selfsustaininggreater persistence and more disciplinedIf you want highperformance highercreativity and ultimately happy employees who will take your business to the next level then you want to work with intrinsic motivationHealthy DevelopmentSee CsikzentmihalyiFlow RyanDeciSelfdetermination TheoryEg think back to high schoolDid you go to classengage in extracurricular activities after school or did you skip class to play cardsgo drinkingMore generally why do some people make it through their teenage years with vitality hope and a general sense that their lives are good and they can pursue meaningful goals whereas others fall off the tracksAutonomy family supports independence selfdirection challenging and fun intrinsic pursuitsRelatedness healthy peer context mentors family support social skills modelingCompetence goal oriented mastery oriented growth mindset success experiences and feedback practice more interpersonally superiorConsequences Using experience sampling methods teens who thrive were found to spend a much higher proportion of time in Flow activitiesie intrinsic interest high defences of challenge intense concentration absorption in the moment and less on unstructured time TV time bumming aroundConclusion Those who thrive are those who engage themselves in activities that develop their talentsKey factor Enjoyment this is not pleasure but more like effortful absorbed engagementstaying attuned to ones experience of enjoyment depends on the appropriate developmental context ie supporting autonomy competence relatedness meaning etc Unfortunately may adults who have not been able to pursue a vocation that they enjoy will reluctant to accept this general conclusion they will tend to see interest and effort and play and work as separate realms because that is how they normally experience them
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