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RSM353H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Subliminal Stimuli, Long-Term Memory, High-Speed Photography

Rotman Commerce
Course Code
Scott Hawkins
Study Guide

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Ch.2 Perception 10/29/2012 6:46:00 PM
Sensation: immediate response of our sensory receptors
Perception: process by which these sensations are selected, organized
and interpreted
Three stages of perception
Hedonic Consumption: multisensory, fantasy and emotional aspects of
consumers’ interactions with products
Sensory marketing: extra attention to the impact of sensation on our
product experiences
Trade Dress: company’s granted exclusive color
Kansei Engineering: philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into
design elements
Exposure: degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of
their sensory receptors
Psychophysics: science that focuses on how the physical
environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world
Absolute threshold: minimum amount of stimulation that can be
detected on a sensory channel
Differential threshold: ability of a sensory system to detect changes
in a stimulus or differences between two stimuli
Just noticeable difference (JND): minimum change in a stimulus
that can be detected
Weber’s Law: the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the
change must be for it to be noticed
o Constant increase/decrease necessary for the stimulus to be
noticed = the minimal change in intensity of the stimulus
required to be just noticeable to the person (JND)/the
intensity of the stimulus before the change occurs
Subliminal Perception
Threshold = limen
Stimuli that fall below the limen are called subliminal
Subliminal perception: when stimulus is below the level of the
consumer’s awareness

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Embeds: tiny figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by
using high speed photography or airbrushing
Subliminal auditory (sound) techniques
Attention: the extent to which the brain’s processing activity is devoted to
a particular stimulus
Perceptual selectivity: people attend to only a small portion of the stimuli
to which they are exposed
Perceptual filters: based on consumer’s past experiences influence what
they decide to process
Perceptual vigilance: factor in selective exposure
Perceptual defense: flip side of perceptual vigilance
Adaptation: degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus
over time
o Intensity
o Duration
o Discrimination
o Exposure
o Relevance
The meaning that people assign to sensory stimuli
Schema: set of beliefs
Priming: certain properties of a stimulus will more likely evoke a
schema than others
Gestalt Psychology: people derive meaning from the totality of a set of
stimuli rather than from any individual stimulus
Principle of closure: consumers tend to perceived an incomplete picture
as complete
Principle of similarity: consumers tend to group together objects that
share similar physical characteristics
Figure-ground principle: one part of a stimulus will dominate while other
parts recede into the background
Semiotics: correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in
the assignment of meaning
Object: product that is the focus of the message

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Sign: sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the
Interpretant: meaning derived
Icon: sign that resembles the product in some way
Symbol: sign that is related to a product through either conventional or
agreed upon associations
Hyperreality: becoming real of what is initially stimulation of hype
Positioning strategy: fundamental part of a company’s marketing efforts
as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer’s
interpretation of its meaning
Positioning dimensions
Price leadership
Product class
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