MOS 2181 Chapter 9 Lecture and Textbook Notes.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

MOS 2181 Chapter 9 What is leadership? The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals; get the best out of the team Reflection Exercise: EMB #1 Traits alone can not predict leadership success Original theory of leadership Leadership success is complex and involves many factors…traits just being one! * Trait theory gave way to behaviour theory for leadership EMB #2 Behaviour theory of leadership Do certain behaviours create better leaders than others (task vs. people oriented, consideration vs. initiation structure) Findings were mixed – some leaders need to consider both task oriented and employee-oriented behaviours. Also it can depend on the situation Contingent leader reward behaviour was found to be positively related to employee perceptions (higher trust in supervisor, positive attitudes (Greater satisfaction with job) *Situational Contingency theory: not trait or behaviour September 11, Rudy Giuliani the way he handled the situation How can situations affect the outcome of leadership efforts? Trait and behaviour gave way to situational theories: Fielder Contingency Model and CRT House’s path goal EMB #3 – Situational Theories of Leadership Fielder’s LPC Theory was OKAY but replaced by CRT: cognitive resource theory: states experience predicts performance in high-stress situations; intelligence predicts performance in low-stress situations House’s Path Goal – Strong evidence: supportive or considerate leader behaviour is most beneficial in supervising routine, frustrating or dissatisfying jobs Some evidence: Directive or structuring leader behaviour is most effective on ambiguous less-structured jobs Path Goal can predict employee’s job satisfaction and acceptance of the leader because of participative behaviour…not so much predicting job performance See page 201 for more on participative leadership theory (Vroom and Jago) Leaders Establish direction by developing a vision of the future, and then they align people by communicating this vision and inspiring them to overcome hurdles Four types of Mental Models (vision) Organization: a system and how its parts interrelate Future: how will it look overall? Personal: leaders aspirations for the organization Strategic: connecting reality of present to tomorrow’s possibilities in a unique way Transactional Leaders Those leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements (Weak, glorified manager) Transformational Leadership Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation and who possess charisma How do you become transformational leader? Jane Howell at Ivey Become aware of your own behaviour (self-test); know your own weaknesses/strengths Set goals Performance Appraisals that measure and reward such behaviours; not afraid to be scrutinized Find a culture that encourages creative ideas *Can be taught, learned Charismatic Leadership Inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the cause/organization Inspiration: the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context CHAPTER NOTES: What is leadership? ­ Leadership: the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in org. context o Effective leadership: achieves org. goals by enhancing productivity, innovation, satisfaction and commitment of the workforce o Leadership has the strongest effect on orgs strategy, success and very survival ­ Strategic Leadership: leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will create a visible future for the org o Strategic leaders provide organizations with competitive advantage Are Leaders Born? Search for leadership traits… ­ Traits : individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality o Those who become leaders and are good at it possess a special set of traits that distinguish them o Leaders: intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity, need for achievement ­ Limitations of the Trait Approach o Trait approach is not the best way of understanding and improving leadership o Crucial problem: failure to take into account the SITUATION in which leadership occurs The Behaviours of Leaders ­ Consideration: o the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees o considerate, friendly, egalitarian, expressed appreciation and support, protective of group welfare ­ Initiating Structure: the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment o Defines and organizes their role and the roles of followers, stress standard procedures, schedules ­ Consequences of Consideration and Structure o Consideration = more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation and leader effectiveness o Initiating = more strongly related leader job performance and group performance ­ Leader Reward Behaviour o The leader’s use of compliments, tangible benefits and deserved special treatment o When rewards are links to performance employees should perform at a higher level o Employees have a clear picture of what is expected of them & know positive outcomes will follow ­ Leader Punishment Behaviour o The leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignment & the active withholding of rewards ­ Contingent leader reward behaviour linked to positive perceptions, attitudes and behaviour ­ Contingent leader punishment behaviour = more favourable than non-contingent ­ Key to effective reward and punishment is that its contingent on employee behaviour Situational Theories of Leadership ­ Effectiveness of leadership style is contingent on the setting o Setting: characteristics of employees, nature of task, characteristic of organization ­ Fiedler’s Contingency Theory o The association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence o Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC): a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task o Leaders who describe LPCs favourably (HIGH LPC score) are relationship oriented • They’re motivated to maintain interpersonal relations o Leaders who describe LPCs unfavourably (LOW LPC score) are task oriented • They’re motivated to accomplish the task o LPC is NOT a measure of consideration/initiating structure it’s just observed BEHAVIOURS o Situational Favorableness: contingency part of contingency theory o Leader-member relations: when relationship is good, leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence o Task Structure: when task is highly structured , leader must provide clear goals/procedures to achieve task o Position Power: formal authority granted to the leader by organization • The more position power they hold the more favourable the leadership situation o Research evidence o Octant II (good relations, structures, weak position power) is contradicted o ­ Cognitive Resource Theory – also Fiedler o A leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise and experience) contribute to effective leadership o Effective leadership depends on: defectiveness of leader, group support for leader, stressfulness of situation o Experience predicts performance in high-stress situation o Intelligence predicts performance in low-stress situations ­ House’s Path-Goal Theory o The theory: concerned with the situations under which various leader behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are most effective o to provide job satisfaction and leader accpetionce, leader behaviour must be perceived as immediately satisfying or leading to future satisfaction o rewards contingent on performance with clear picture of how to achieve goals o Leader behaviour: o Directive Behaviour: schedule work, maintain performance standards, let employees know what’s expected of them. Identical to Initiating Structure o Supportive Behaviour: friendly, approachable and concerned with pleasant interpersonal relationships. Identical to Consideration o Participative Behaviour: consult with employees about work related matters and consider their opinions o Achievement-Oriented Behaviour: encourage employees to exert high effort and strive for high level of goal accomplishment. Express confidence that employees can reach these goals o Situational factors o Two primary classes of situational factors • Employee characteristics and environment factors o Employees who are high achievers  Achievement-Oriented leadership o Employees who prefer being told what to do Directive Leadership o Employees feel they have low task abilities  directive leadership and coaching behaviour o Research Evidence o Supportive/considerate leadership is most beneficial in structuring routine, frustrating or dissatisfying jobs
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