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Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Ingroups And Outgroups, Agreeableness, Job Performance

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Sarah Ross
Study Guide

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MOS 2181 Final Exam Part 4
Leadership Styles and Behaviours
- Leadership: The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward
goal achievement
- Leaders may be judged by objective evaluations of unit performance
o Ex: profit margins market share, sales, returns on investment, productivity,
quality, costs in relation to budgeted expenditures, etc.
- If objective evaluations of performance are unavailable, can judge based on followers
performance on absenteeism, retention of talent, grievances filed, requests for
transfers, etc.
o Whe assessig leades, oe of the hadest uestios is ho do ou ask
Members of a unit often disagree on how effective their leader is
Leader Effectiveness
- Leader Effectiveness: The degree to hih the leade’s atios esult i the ahieeet
of the uit’s goals, the otiued oitet of the uit’s eploees, ad the
development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader-member dyads
- Explains who becomes a good leader
- There is no generalized profile of effective leaders
o Many trait-leadership correlations are weak
o Looking at leader traits is not as effective as focusing on leader actions
o Traits are more predictive of leader emergence
Leader Emergence: The process of becoming a leader in the first place
Explains what makes someone become a leader
Leader Actions
1. Decision-making styles
o Time-Driven Model of Leadership
2. Day-to-day behaviours
o Behavioural Approach
3. Behaious that fall outside of a leade’s tpial duties
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Leadership Theories
- Leader-member exchange theory (LMX theory)
- The trait approach
- The time-driven model of leadership
- The behavioural approach
- The life-cycle theory of leadership
- Transformational leadership theory
1. Leader-Member Exchange Theory
- Leader-Member Exchange Theory: A theory describing how leader-member
relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis
- The theory discusses why:
o Different members of the same unit have different views on leaders
o Leaders may interact differently with different followers
- New leader-member relationships are marked by a role taking phase
o Role Taking: The phase of the relationship when a leader provides an employee
with job expectations and the follower tries to meet those expectations
o The leader is trying to get a feel for the talent of the new employee
o The leader will give their expectations and the employee attempts to meet them
- The initial phase may be shifted into role making for some employees
o Role Making: The phase of the relationship when a follower voices his or her
own expectations for the relationship, resulting in a free-flowing exchange of
opportunities and resources for activities and effort
o The leader is a bit more familiar with the employee
o Employees own expectations for the dyad get mixed in with those of the leader
o The leader offers more opportunities/resources, the employee contributes more
- Over time, the role taking and role making processes result in two types of leader-
member dyads:
o High ualit ehage igoup
Frequent exchange of information, influence, latitude, support and
Higher levels of communication, mutual trust, respect and obligation
Followers who are competent, likeable and similar to the leader in
These people are less likely to leave an organization
More effective in individualistic (western) cultures
RESEARCH: Meta-analysis shows that they display higher levels of job
performance / citizenship behaviours
o Lo ualit ehage outgoup
Limited exchange of information, influence, latitude, support and
Lower levels of communication, trust, respect and obligation
You do’t at this is a ogaizatio
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2. Trait Approach
- An early approach to leadership that suggested that leadership is about the particular
characteristics or attributes of effective leaders
o Instead, leaders are someone that behave in certain ways
- Believed that certain characteristics will make someone a better leader
- We now recognize that there is no generalized profile of an effective leader
o This tends to be more predictive of leader emergence
But just eause ou hae these taits does’t autoatiall ake ou a
effective leader!
3. Time-Driven Model of Leadership Decision Making Styles
- A leaders decision making style reflects the process the leader uses to generate and
choose from a set of alternatives to solve a problem
- States HOW a leader decides
- Does the leader decide most things for themselves, or do they involve others in the
- There is no one decision making style that is effective across all situations
- RESEARCH: Allowing employees to participate in decision making increases job
satisfaction. BUT employees spend 6hours/week in scheduled meetings that can relate
negatively to job satisfaction
- A leadership model in which the focus shifts away from autocratic, consultative,
facilitative, and delegative leaders to autocratic, consultive, facilitative and delegative
situations, and in which several factors combine to make some decision-making styles
more effective in a given situation and others less effective
- They key point to this model is that we should involve others in decision making
- States 7 factors that combine to make some decision-making styles more or less
o Decision significance
o Importance of commitment
o Leader expertise
o Likelihood of commitment
o Shared objectives
o Employee expertise
o Teamwork skills
- RESEARCH: when using the model, decisions were 68% successful. When they went
against the mode, only 22% successful
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