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Psych 2030 Lecture 2.docx

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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Lecture 2: Human Adjustment Psychology Chapter 2 Moral therapy Projection Generalization Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology  Gregor Mendel’s work in the 19 century o Phenotype (physical makeup) vs. genotype (genetic makeup)  Nature of genes o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)—double helix o 23 pairs of chromosomes o Development and behavior is often polygenetic o Genetic contribution to psychopathology less than 50% (mainly environmental) o Genetic contribution to intelligence around 62% The interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effects  Ethogenics—chemical binding with the genes (not on exam)  Eric Kandel—Learning  activation of dormant genes (not active genes. Hence “dormant”—sleeping) “jumping genes” o Continued brain development  The Diathesis-Stress Model o Ex. Blood-injury-injection phobia and alcoholism o Some people being more “prone” to something due to genetic makeup  Reciprocal Gene-Environmental Model o Ex. Include depression (based on research by Toronto Psychologist Randy Katz), divorce, and impulsivity o Genetic makeup pre disposition traits leave us to situations that engage in activities that cause problems? o A theory of psychology that helps to explain how one gets a psychological disorder. It says that a person, who is predisposed to a certain disorder (like depression), will inadvertently create an unsuitable environment for themselves which will propagate the accumulation of the disorder. Example: A person with a genetic vulnerability to depression will have bad relationships or close people off and, as a result, become depressed.  Non-Genomic Inheritance of Behaviour (Epigenetics) o Ex. Post traumatic stress disorder? o Genes are not the whole story—e.g. critical periods o Later in the trauma—better you are dealing/going to be with it o Cross fostering studies of development  Ex. Newborns are fearful? Calm behaviour of the calm mothers was passed down to their babies?  Neuroscience and the Division of the Brain o Forebrain (cerebral Cortex)  Location of most sensory, emotional, and cognitive, information processing  Two specialized hemispheres (left and right) joined by the corpus callosum  Right—spatial; left—verbal, cognitive  Neuroscience and the brain structure o Lobes of cerebral cortex  Frontal—thinking and reasoning abilities, memory, decision making  Parietal—touch recognition  Occipital—integrates visual input  Temporal—side of the head, recognition of sights and sounds and long-term memory storage o Limbic system—hippocampus, cingulated gyrus (emotions), septum, and amygdala (emitting and processing emotions) o Basal ganglia (including caudate nucleus) o Figure 2.7 and 2.6 (limbic system) in textbook  Neuroscience contribution to Psychopathology o The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior o The central nervous system (CNS)  Brain and spinal cord o The peripheral nervous system (PNS)  Somatic (body related) and autonomic branches (other things?)  Neuroscience: peripheral nervous and Endocrine Systems) o Somatic branches of PNS  Controls voluntary muscles and movement o Autonomic branches of PNS  Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS  Regulates cardiovascular system and body temperature  Also regulates the endocrine system (glands and hormones in the body) and aids in digestion o Endocrine system  Hormones (epinephrine, thyroxin, sex hormones) o The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenalcortical Axis (HYPAC axis)  Integration of endocrine and nervous system function  Neuroscience: Functions of Main types of Neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers o Functions of neurotransmitters  Agonists and antagonists  Most drugs are either agonists or antagonistic  Neuroscience: functions of main types of neurotransmitters o Main types and functions of neurotransmitters  Serotonin (5HT)—moods—SSRIs  Low serotoninless inhibition, suicide, overeating, aggression  Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)—inhibitory  Reduces anxiety—benzodiazepines  Norepinephrine stimulates; beta blockers for hypertension, regulate heart rate  Dopamine—exploratory & pleasure-seeking  Antipsychotics—parkinsonism  Figure 2.10 (major serotonin pathways in the brain)  Figure 2.13 (major dopamine pathways)  Figure 2.11 (manipulating serotonin in the brain)  Figure 2.12 (major norepinephrine pathways)  Implications for Psychopathology o Relations between brain and abnormal behaviour  E.g. serotonin; and OCD, hyslexia (also brain hemispheres), and schizophrenia o Experience can change brain structure and function o Therapy, as well as medicatiom, can change brain structure and function—e.g. OCD  Behavioural and cognitive science o Conditioning and cognitive processes  Classical and operant learning  Learned helplessness  Modeling and vicarious learning—bandura  Prepared learning  Brain interaction with psychosocial factors o Cognitive science and the unconscious  Implicit memory, blind sight stroop paradigm o Cognitive-behavioural therapy  Heck, Ellis (cognitive therapy), meichenbaum (self- instructional training)  The role of emotion in psychopathology o The nature of emotion  Fear—e.g. fight and flight  Dif
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