BIOL 1001 Study Guide - Final Guide: Tetrapod, Exaptation, Transitional Fossil

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16 Aug 2016
Learning Outcomes
G3 Explain, drawing on knowledge of microevolution how complex evolutionary innovations
(traits) such as camera eye, feather for flight or behaviours might have evolved from ‘no trait’ to
‘full trait’ state. Explain exaptation and its role in morphological innovation
Morphological trait- one that allowed descendants to live in new areas, exploit new
sources of food or move in new ways- triggered many of diversification events in history
of life
The evolution of wings, three pairs of legs , complex mouth parts and strong external
skeleton helped insects move and feed efficiently
Flowers are unique reproductive structure that helped trigger diversification of
angiosperm (flowering plants). Because flowers are particularly efficient at attracting
pollinators, the evolution of flower made angiosperms more efficient in reproduction
Cichlids are lineage of fish that evolved unique set of jaws in their throat and second
jaws make food processing extremely efficient
Feathers and wings gave some dinosaurs the ability to fly. Feathers originally evolved for
display or insulation but later were used in gliding and in powered flight
The evolution of new morphological features have supported rapid speciation and
ecological divergence
Tetrapod- Any member of taxon Tetrapoda, which includes all vertebrates with two pairs
of limbs(amphibians, mammals, birds and other reptiles)
Transitional forms for evolution of:
Movement of land mammals to ocean
Feather and flight in birds’
Vascular tissue in plants
Upright posture and large brains in humans
Jaws in vertebrates
Tetrapod limb (movement from water to land)
Tetrapod limb
Living species of lungfish inhabit shallow, oxygen poor water
To supplement oxygen taken in by gills they have lungs and breathe air
Lungfish have fleshy fins supported by bones and are capable of walking short
distances along bottom of pond. When they walk their fins move in same
sequence as limbs of tetrapod walking on land
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