Human Geography Midterm study questions
1. What is the difference between place and space?
- A place is a place that interconnects people to other things or, a place that has
personal meaning for people.
- space is where activity occurs , three types of space: absolute space(lines,
points, area that have fixed relationships through economic reasoning), relative
space(sites and situations, routes, regions and distribution patterns) and cognitive
space( defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s values
feelings, beliefs and perceptions about locations, districts, and regions)
2. What is the defining component of globalization? Explain.
- The defining component of globalization is the dependency theory. Countries will
continue to build political, cultural and economic relationships as long as the countries
other than the core nations need their help. Core countries force the oppressed nations
to specialize in one good for export, which benefits the core nation. It has been very
difficult for most colonialized countries to become developed.
3. Define ‘chorology’ and the importance of a ‘chorological view’ to Geography.
- The study of how and why variations occur between places, often in terms of
spatial distributions. It can be traced back to Strabo and his descriptions of
locations and fossils. Kant advocated that a chorological view described areal
differentiation but also examines the interrelationships among different regions.
The chorological view was the foundation of much regional geography in the
1940s and 1950s.
4. Explain Ratzel’s concept of Lebensraum.
- Ratzel believed that territory is necessary for national existence or economic self-
sufficiency. Without territory, it would be impossible to be incomplete control of what
affairs take place especially dealing with economic opportunities and laws.
5. What are two common elements within a ‘critical’ approach to geography?
- The first element is spatial practices: how we love and function in everyday lives.
- The second element is representational spaces(lived paces): art , music, fashion; how
landscapes and symbols structure our understanding
6. What is the North Atlantic Triangle and why is it important to the economic
development of Canada? - The North Atlantic triangle is a theoretical construct for studying the history of Canadian foreign policy. It seeks to explain the importance of
United Kingdom–United States relations to Canada's security, and even survival, during
the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
7. Does Canada have “too much geography”? Discuss.
Canada has large amounts of land but with very little population in comparison.
Canada’s total area measures 9,984,670 square kilometres. 9% of which is water and
the rest being land.
If we have too much geography, most Canadians see very little of it in their daily lives
because most of Canada’s population lives relatively close to the U.S. border. Different
regions such as Arctic tundra up north, deciduous forests, and the prairies.
39% of canada’s land is barren or low vegetation
8. How are ‘core’ and ‘peripheral’ countries in the world system locked in
- Goods produced by the peripheral nations are vital for core nations to sustain
their economy. There is no development in the core unless there is under
development in the periphery.
9. What is a ‘staple’(good) and what did Harold Innis mean by the ‘staples trap’?
- staple= a minimally processed primary resource good ex; fish, fur, wood, grains,
- Staples dictate the social economy; everyone wants to produce that good causing the
worth to decrease, but is possible to escape the trap.
10. Is Canada a core, semi-peripheral, or peripheral nation?
Canada is a core nation. Generally, core nations are the more developed nations of the
world and the countries that contain much of the wealth of the planet. Canada is very
abundant in natural resources, which allows us to export for a large portion of our trade
and growth. We also have a large population with a strong economical and social
standard which core countries have.
11. Describe the core-periphery relationship within Canada
- Canada has many ties to periphery nations that provide cheap labour and help to
produce many of the goods people use in their everyday lives. Sometimes these countries are definitely abused example, the factory that collapsed in Bangladesh that
manufactured clothes for Joe fresh and sears.
12. What is the difference between a formal and a vernacular region?
A vernacular region is a region inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits
in common, for example we can see language and religion as being some traits. Using
language or customs native to a region. ("Dixie"or "Midwest"). More of a traditional
society. It is an area that is relatively homogeneous with regard to one or more cultural
traits. Formal Region - a region with a defined, predetermined boundary. A good
example might be a school district, a country, a city zoning district, a no-fly-zone,etc.
This can differ from physical environmental features to economical and political features
of that area. The difference as we can see is that one is based on a more visually
differentiating perspective (formal) as we can clearly see the difference of that region to
a vernacular region because a vernacular region becomes one through the popularity of
a cultural point of a region.
13. Describe the four principles of spatial interaction.(pg. 43 in the textbook)
- complementarity- a precondition for interdependence between places, includes
demand and supply, international division of labour, specialization and economies of
- Transferability- the costs of moving a particular item, measured in real money or time,
and the ability of the item to bear these costs.
- Intervening opportunities- determine the volume and pattern of movement and
flows, basically alternative regions or destinations
- spatial diffusion- the way in which things spread through space and time ex; disease
outbreaks, technological innovations, political movements and new musical fads
14. What is meant by the term time-space compression?
Time-Space Compression refers to any phenomenon that alters the qualities of and
time and space. Way to close the gap when trying to communicate with people who are
- New experience of time and space.
o Changing over time.
o Travel has become faster over time, for example (boat, train, airplane). - Reduced time to return on capital investment.
o Searching for cheaper labour markets.
o Reduced time on economic investment.
15. Describe three perspectives on globalization
interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of
economic, political, environmental, and cultural change.
Economic-> open market, freed trade and investments across the globe allow more
people to share in the prosperity of a growing world economy.
Political-> globalization influences different countries with democracy and human
rights. Neoliberal policies to promote open markets and free trades
Environmental-> Oil spills. Pollution as a result of globalization
cultural change-> Globalization brings different products to countries which make lives
easier and change their every day lives.
16. Is tourism really global? Discuss.
- Tourism may be considered global because it depends on what kind tourism the
person or people are doing. Every country whether they are, peripheral or core have
something to offer whether it is recreation, leisure or for work. But, the people living in
underdeveloped nations may not be able to do tourism of their own due to lack of
education or income.
17. Explain what is meant by anti-tourism.
Anti tourism is not travelling to the main attractions of a certain location. It is about
finding beauty and wonder in areas that are not known to most people. Anti tourism
rejects the idea that there is something special about the Taj Mahal or the Great Wall of
China, and other famous sites that attract thousands ofpeople to it daily. Instead, it is
these locations and sites that create the idea of anti tourism.
18. What is the main difference between the Neoclassical approach to Migration
and the Marxist approach?
- Neoclassical- ppl rationally motivated to improve their conditions/includes push
and pull factors(family, lack of jobs)/migration as personal development that enables migration/ *personal characteristics- men are more likely to migrate,
young than old job and education
- Marxist: relationships of capital as the centre feature ex; rural to urban->fairness
moving to the cities/ economic necessity overrides personal choice
19. Briefly describe 3 impacts for both emigration and immigration.
Emigration- Cause an economic problem decreases the gdp, strain on the tax payers,
- Brain drain-educated classes are moving from certain countries (i.e trained
- Remittances-flows of money that come back to the