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Russia Identifications.docx

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Political Science
POLI 211
Fillippo Sabetti

Russia Identifications Karl Marx and F. Engels • wrote the Communist Manifesto • class struggle (bourgeoisie vs. proletariat) • revolution for new and advanced from of economic organization • class society ◦ slavery (early civilization) ◦ feudalism (aristocracy and peasants) ◦ capitalism (US & England 1700s) Vladimir Lenin • founded Marxist regime, leader of the Bolsheviks • "What is to be Done" essay • revolution must be led by intellectuals ◦ working class is too easily appeased with small gains • New Economic Policy ◦ small-scale capitalism • democratic centralism "Democratic centralism" • Lenin policy • party of pro-revolutionaries must be strictly hierarchical and unified • democratic debate within the party ends once the party's Central Committee has made a decision on an issue Bolshevik Party • ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union • governed by democratic centralism • run by Lenin • means "the majority" • bare majority of people voted to prohibit part-time party membership • split of Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks Soviets • Russian word meaning council, assembly, or advice • post-Nicholas II provisional government had little authority • soviets have more power • groups of workers and workers (popular organizations) New Economic Policy (NEP) • Lenin, 1921 • freed market gains • small-scale capitalism in cities • helped trade and agriculture recover • ban on factions within party ranks • "State Capitalism" • later replaced by Five Years Plan (Stalin) Joseph Stalin • Lenin's successor • socialism in one country • Five Years Plans for rapid industrialization • collectivization. Gosplan, and gulag system • anti-national autonomy • purges Communist Party Socialism in one country • stop waiting for revolution to happen in other countries (start at home in Russia) • Stalin policy • strengthen from within • shift from Marxist idea that socialism needs to be established globally Five-Year Plans • Stalin policy to restructure the entire Soviet economy • collectivization of agriculture • planned heroism in industry ◦ centrally planned production targets for every manager and worker (Gosplan) ◦ bonuses and perks if you surpass your quota • gulag system (prison labour camps) Collectivization • Stalin's way of dealing with huge peasant population + gaining party control over food production • part of Five Years Plan • get rid of kulaks (peasants that benefit/profit from private property in agriculture) • collectivize farms and state farms ◦ peasants work for greater good of the proletariat • generates famine in a agriculture regions in USSR Gulag • prison labour camps • people put to work building canals, roads, digging coal, making monuments • played huge role in attaining industrialization target • part of Stalin's Five Years Plan Nikita Krushchev (LEFT) • Communist Party leader • wants revolutionary advance ASAP towards communism • eases censorship in media and arts • economic campaign to set records • Cuban Missile Crisis • responsible for part de-Stalinization of Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev • resists any and all reform of Soviet institutions • tightens censorship • ignores corruption and flaws in the system • start of economic stagnation • Soviet in
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