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PSYC 213 (154)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

Chapter 1 IntroductionKEY TERMSAffordances 16 the potential functions or uses of stimuli in the real world What things furnish for good or ill Gibson Believed by Gibson to be necessary to perceive the meanings of objects Bit 8 short for Binary Digit an event that occurs in a situation with two equally likely outcomes provides one bit of information Every time the number of equally likely alternatives doubles the number of bits goes up by one BrownPeterson task 15 an experimental paradigm in which subjects are given a set of objects and a number Subjects immediately begin counting backwards by threes from the number After a specific interval subjects are asked to recall the original items Used to test differences between long and shortterm memoriesChannel capacity 12 the maximum amount of information that can be transmitted by an information processing device Cognitive ethology 17a new approach that links realworld observations with labbased investigationsEcological approach 16 a form of psychological inquiry that reflects the conditions of the real worldBroadbent s filter model 12the first complete theory of attention its based on the idea that information processing is restricted by channel capacity Figure 16 on page 12 Folk psychology 4 what we assume to know based on our observations of the behavior of ourselves and othersdiffers from scientific psychology Information pickup 16 the process whereby we perceive information directlyInformation theory 8 the information provided by a particular event is inversely related to its probability of occurrencethe less likely a signal is the more information it conveys Introspection 15 the act of observing ones own thoughts and feelings as they seem to oneself no longer considered to be a valid scientific resource Metacognition 18 the knowledge that people have about the way that certain cognitive processes work how accurately you can assess your own cognitive processes Perceptual cycle 16 the process whereby our schema not only guides our exploration of the world but is also shaped by what is found therethe schema guides the observer to information which in turn corrects the schema Primary memory 15 consists of what we are aware of in the immediately present moment Often called shortterm memory or immediate memory Part of Waugh and Normans model of information processing Schema 16 our expectations concerning what we are likely to find as we explore the world Secondary memory 15 the knowledge of a former state of mind after it has been absent from awareness for some period of time Also called longterm memory Part of Waugh and Normans model of information processingSUMMARY What is CognitionCognition is defined as the action or faculty of knowing by the dictionaryWe are utilizing scientific psychology which seeks to refine folk psychologyA founder of the field G A Miller posited that the knowledge of a word was proportional to the understanding of terms closely associated with itAwarenessmust we attend to something to learn it can information that we do not attend to influence usIntelligencevery complex concept is quickness the only necessary factor what about sagacityIntuitioncould sudden flashes of insight be due to prior work
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