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Chapter 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 215
Professor
Donald Taylor
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC215 Chapter 4 Notes Definitions: Attitude: A Favourable or unfavourable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings, or intended behaviour. Role: A set of norms that define how people in a given social position ought to behave. Gender Role: A set of behaviour expectations (norms) for males and females. Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon: The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Low-Ball Technique: A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester up the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it. Cognitive Dissonance: Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favouring one alternative despite reasons favouring another. Insufficient Justification Effect: Reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one’s behaviour when external justification is “insufficient”. Self-perception Theory: The theory that when unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us – by looking at our behaviour and the circumstances under which it occurs. Overjustification Effect: The result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their action as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. Self-affirmation Theory: A theory that people often experience self-image threat after engaging in an undesirable behaviour, they compensate for this threat by affirming another aspect of the self. Threaten people’s self-concept in one domain, and they will compensate either by refocusing or by doing good deeds in some other domain. Chapter Notes:  Every year, the tobacco industry kills over 2 million customers with over half a billion people died from smoking tobacco based on a 1994 World Health Organization report  When people question someone’s attitude, they refer to beliefs and feelings related to a person or event and the resulting behaviour. Taken together, favourable or unfavourable evaluative reactions – whether exhibited in beliefs, feelings, or inclinations to act – define a person’s attitude something.  When we have to respond quickly to something, how we feel about it can guide how we react.  ABCs of attitudes: Affect (feelings), Behaviour (intention), and Cognition (thoughts).  The prevailing assumption is that our private beliefs and feelings determine our public behaviour, so if we want to alter the way people act; we need to change their hearts and minds.  Leon Festinger concluded that evidence did not show that changing attitudes changes behaviour. Festinger believed that attitude-behaviour relation works the other way around, with our behaviour as the horse and our attitudes as the cart.  Allan Wicker concluded that people’s expressed attitudes hardly predicted their varying behaviours. For example, student attitudes toward cheating bore little relation to the likelihood of their actually cheating.  Daniel Batson showed “Moral hypocrisy” (appearing moral without being so) as an example of the disjuncture between attitudes and action by having individuals choose from a positive task with reward or dull task with nothing. At the end of the day, when morality and greed were put on a collision course, greed won.  What controls behaviour is external social influences, such as other’s behaviour and expectations, and played down internal factors, such as attitudes and personality.  Social psychologists today measure facial muscle responses to statements and to wire people to a fake lie detector in order to subtly assess attitudes. IAT (Implicit Association Test) uses reaction times to measure how quickly people associate concepts.  The findings define a principle of aggregation: The effects of an attitude on behaviour become more apparent when we look at a person’s aggregate or average behaviour rather than at isolated acts.  When the measured attitude is general, we should not expect a close correspondence between words and actions. In 26 out of 27 studies by Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein, attitudes did not predict behaviour, but attitudes did predict behaviour in all 26 studies they could find in which the measured attitude was directly pertinent to the situation.  Icek Ajzen, working with Martin Fishbein, has shown that one’s (a) attitudes, (b) perceived social norms, and (c) feelings of control together determine one’s intentions, which guide behaviours.  Specific, relevant attitudes do predict behaviour; attitudes towards condoms strongly predict condom use and attitudes toward recycling (but not general attitudes toward environmental issues) predict participation in recycling.  Two conditions which attitudes will predict behaviour: (1) When we minimize other influences on our attitude statements and our behaviour, and (2) when the attitude is specifically relevant to the observed behaviour. Third condition is when an attitude predicts behaviour better when it is potent.  People who take a few moments to review their past behaviour express attitudes that better predict their future behaviour. Our attitudes guide our behaviour if we think about them.  Self-conscious people are usually in touch with their attitudes. Another way to induce people to focus on their inner convictions is to make them self-conscious like performing in front of a mirror.  When attitudes arise from experience, they are far more likely to endure and to guide actions.  Our attitudes predict our actions if: o Other influences are minimized o Th
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