Management Skills 3S03 March 3 , 2014
Chapter 2: Communication
Creating Persuasive Messages
The first rule of effective communication is to analyze your audience.
People are convinced to align their attitudes and behaviours with those of someone else for three
main reasons. Aristotle first articulated these 3 elements of persuasion.
1. Ethos – we are persuaded by the personal credibility of a speaker
2. Pathos – we respond to emotional appeals in a message
3. Logos – we are moved by the logical arguments supporting a position
Ethos: Personal Credibility
It is important to gain and maintain a trustworthy reputation. Research indicates that as the
requests you make require others to do more and more, your personal credibility becomes more
and more important.
People find your message most appealing when it is clear that you truly understand them. I.e.
emphasize ways you are similar to your audience. Remind people that some of your credibility
comes from being similar to them.
Establish your authority over expertise.
Ethos boils down to expertise and relationships. Make sure the quality of your presentation
reflects your expertise.
Pathos: Arousing Others’ Emotions
Persuasive appeals that tug at your heartstrings, make you laugh, or even scare you are using
pathos to arouse your emotions. Most effective when stories and examples that are highly
relevant to their listeners are used; or when listeners’ emotions are aroused in a way that prompts
their compliance with the message. Robert Cialdini: fairness and storytelling.
People will treat you as you treated them.
Logos: Using Evidence
These facts, figures, and other forms of persuasion help listeners believe they are making an
informed, rational choice. Two kinds of arguments:
1. Deductive: moves from the general to the specific
We make an assertion, then provide evidence in support of that assertion.
2. Inductive: moves from talking about specific things to generalizing
We present the evidence and then draw conclusions from it
2 types of evidence available:
2. Appeal to authority
What an audience is looking for in a speaker is prudence, the practical wisdom to make the right
choice at the right time.
Delivering Powerful Messages
The five S’s are a 5 step process that can guide you when preparing any persuasive presentation.
The S’s are sequential; the first 3 steps involve preparation, while the fourth and fifth focus on
the actual presentation. [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]
The 5 S’s
Different approaches for different people. Good strategizing for a presentation would include
• Who is my audience?
• What is my goal?
• Ethos, pathos, logos
You now know the arguments most persuasive to your audience, so order them.
Some of the most common types of support materials are: examples, statistics, testimony, stories
There are 3 noteworthy differences between giving speeches and holding conversations. Public
speaking is more structured. Public speaking is more formal. Public speaking requires a different
kind of talking.
Prepare for Q&A.
Key points to remember when designing visual aids:
1. Colour – use it.
Special communication Skills and Contexts
Choosing Your Communication Medium
When deciding, consider two important variables: the information richness of the available
communication channels and the topic’s complexity.
Information richness is the potential informationcarrying capa