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FSN 221 (1)

Color for the Real World Textbook Outline

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FSN 221
Anna Romanovska

Fundamentals of Design & Colour Color for the Real World - Textbook Outline Chapter 1: The Nature of Colour, Colour Systems What is Color? 3 requirements to see colour 1. an object 2. a light source 3. an observer Object – reflects light – can be smooth, rough, flat, glossy, or curved Light Source – illuminates the object – can be daylight, artificial light, or a mathematical simulation Observer – senses the reflected light – can be a human eye, or a spectrophotometer spectrophotometer – device that measures reflected or transmitted light colorimeter – a device that measures the shade, tint, value, brightness, or purity of a colour – can also compare the colour of a liquid with a standard colour colorimetry – the measurement or analysis by a colorimeter The Source of Colours and Their Fixed Natural Order Wavelengths – measured in nanometers Red – wavelength (700 nm) – long wavelength – low frequency of vibrations Violet – wavelength (400 nm) – short wavelength – high frequency of vibrations Colour Systems Albert Munsell – published the Munsell System of Color Notation – identifies colour in terms of three attributes: hue (the colour), value (lightness or darkness), chroma (the intensity) – shape of the Munsell colour sphere accommodates the fact that pure hues have different value levels and different ranges of intensity – hue was determined physically by wavelength; colour can be distinguished and judged similar to one of the spectral hues (red, yellow, green, blue, purple) – hue was the family name for a group of chromatic colours – Munsell system uses ten major hues representing equidistant spaces to the eye – Primaries: red, yellow, green, blue, purple – Intermediates: yellow red, green yellow, blue green, purple blue, red purple Wilhelm Ostwald – was a German chemist and Nobel prize winner – system favours a physiological/psychological approach – Ostwald ventured past the chemist's purview to see colour as sensation – Four Primaries (which correspond to four predominant visual colour sensations: yellow, blue, red, green – Four Secondary Colours: yellow green, blue purple, purple, orange – Colour solid was based on geometric progression where all hues were due to combinations of hue plus black and white – Tinting: adding white to a hue – Shading: adding black to a hue – Munsell's greys were achieved by adding hue complements – Ostwald's greys are produced by adding white and black to a hue CIE – Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (The International Commission on Illumination) – CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour space is used for measuring and ordering object colour NCS – The Natural Colour System – Colour system of the Scandinavian Colour Institute of Sweden – Based on six elementary colours, or three pairs of opponent colours (ie. Black-white, green-red, yellow-blue) – NCS colour notation has three attributes: – 1. blackness (darkness) – 2. chromaticity (saturation) – 3. percentage value between two of the four elementary chromatic colours (hue) – NCS describes colours as we see them – any colour can be defined within the NCS system and given a notation – NCS system starts with six elementary colours, which are seen as “pure” – These six elementary colours correspond with the perception of colour in our brain Pantone – Pantone Matching System: an international reference for selecting, specifying, matching, and controlling ink colours – Pantone Formula Guide: a three-guide set consisting of 1114 sold Pantone Colours on coated, un-coated, and matte stock, which shows the printing ink formulas for each colour Additive and Subtractive Colour Mixtures Additive Colour Mixtures – are derived from beams of coloured light – stage lighting, colour on computer monitors, and TVs are additive – additive mixtures of red, green, and blue lights overlap to produce white – Three primaries overlap in pairs: – 1. red and green – produces yellow – 2. green and blue – produces cyan – 3. blue and red – produces magenta Subtractive Colour Mixtures are due to the occurs when pigments, paints, and dyes are layered or mixed – are subtractive because the pigments absorb or subtract some wavelength of the light striking them and reflect back the rest of the wavelengths – colours that one sees are due to the absorption and reflection of the light by the colourants – ex. fabric absorbs green and blue wavelengths of white light appears red because it only reflects the longer wavelengths – Colours that are not absorbed are reflected from the surface – in subtractive systems, the mixture of three primary hues (red, yellow, blue) will produce black Chapter 2: Colour Nomenclature Hue, Value & Chroma – The Munsell Colour System – created by Albert Munsell – denotes colour in terms of hue, value, and chroma – this method arranges the three attributes of colour into orderly scales of equal visual steps – the scales are used as parameters for analyzing and describing colour under standard conditions of illuminating and viewing Hue – family name for a group of chromatic colours – the name can be distinguished and judged to be similar to one of the spectral hues (red, yellow, green, blue, and purple) – hue is determined physically by wavelength – “The hue notation of a colour indicates its relation to a visually equally spaced scale of 100 hues. There are 10 major hues (5 principal, 5 intermediate) positioned 10 hue steps apart within this scale. The hue notation in general use is based on the 10 major hue names: Red, Yellow- Red, Yellow, Green-Yellow, Green, Blue-Green, Blue, Purple-Blue, Purple, Red Purple.” Value – value notation indicates the degree of lightness or darkness of a colour in relation to the neutral grey scale – the scale extends from absolute black to absolute white – value symbol 0 is used for black – value symbol 10 is used for white – value symbol 5 is used for middle grey and for all chromatic colours that appear halfway in value between black and white – on the neutral value scale, the eye can distinguish nine steps of grey regular;y graded from black at the lower end to white at the top – value can be determined by comparing any colour to this scale Chroma – is the quality of colour indicating its purity, strength, or weakness – it is the degree if saturation or intensity as measured against a neutral grey – intensity or luminosity, the third dimension of colour, is the most subtle – hues can range from strong, intense, bright and pure to moderate to dull, weak, greyed or neutralized – two colours that match under one light source with a specific spectral distribution may not much under another light source with an entirely different spectral distribution. – colours that match under fluorescent light but not daylight – Metamerism: a relationship between samples that changes with changing light sources – that colours vary in the number of steps required to obtain full saturation explains the carrying power of the warm hues – the scale of chroma extend from 0 for a neutral grey out to /10, /12, /14, /16 or further depending on the strength (saturation) of the sample – the notation 5R 4/12 means that the hue of this colour is 5R (red), the value is 4 and the chroma is 12. 5R means that the colour is in the middle of the red hue band, 4/ means that the value is medium lightness and /12 means that the chroma is strong and saturated – the shape of the colour sphere accommodates the fact that pure hues have different value levels and differing ranges of intensity – the varying chroma power of the Munsell hues gives an irregular shape to the Munsell solid The Munsell Notation – The value (V) notation indicates the degree of lightness or darkness of a colour in relation to a neutral, grey scale, which extends from absolute black to absolute white. 0/ is used for absolute black, 10/ is used for absolute white. /5 is used for the middle grey and all chromatic colours that appear halfway in value between black and white. – The chroma (C) notation indicates the degree of departure of a given hue from neutral grey of the same value. The scales of chroma extend from 0/ for a neutral grey out to /10, /12, /14 or farther, depending on the strength of the sample. – The complete Munsell notation for a chromatic colour is written as H V/C. Decimals can be used for a finer division. – The notation for a neutral (achromatic) colour is written, N C/. For black, a very dark neutral (N 1/) whereas for white, a very light neutral (N 9/). Grey would be (N 5/) Colour Temperature – Warm and Cool Colours – Warm and/or light valued hues and white appear to advance toward the viewer and expand. – They may appear to segregate, to appear larger and light in weight than cool hues. – They may seem happy, dense, stimulating, earthy, near, and dry. – Cool and/or dark hues and black appear to recede from the viewer and contract or have concentric motion. – They integrate or blend into each other and appear smaller in size than warm hues. – They may appear heavier in weight, seem shadowy, transparent, sedate, and wet. – If warm or cool appear in a highly contrasting context, the effects can be increased. Colour Families Earth Colours Yellow based earth colours: Raw Sienna: – Same as feuille mort – Colour of pigment made from earth containing iron – Slightly darker than yellow ochre due to its content of a manganese compound – Green based earth colours: Olive: – Dark, greyish variations of yellows which appear greenish – There are olive browns, olive greens and olive yellows Raw Umber: – Colour of the umber pigment obtained from earth – From the Italian word (terra d'ombre) – When burned, raw umber becomes a more reddish brown colour – Red based earth colours: Burnt Sienna: – Colour of terra di Sienna when burnt – Same as oxide red and Persian red: typical reddish brown – Colour of the chemical compounds ferric oxide – Pigment is in abundant supply, but can also be artificially produced – Colour can vary: Vandyke brown, Venetian red, English red, Pompeian red, rust, brick red, tile red, terra cotta – all are names based on this pigment – Pigment has been known since time of cave painters Burnt Umber: – Same as Vandyke brown – Colour of the pigment burnt umber Terra Cotta: – Same as tile red, brick red – The colour of burnt clay which contains oxide of iron – From the Italian terra (earth or clay) and cotta (baked) Standard and Popular Colour Names Brown: Burnt sienna: A dark reddish brown pigment prepared by calcining raw sienna Ecru: A pale brown or light tan from the french ecru, raw, unbleached Khaki brown: A dull yellowish brown, the colour of dust, like the heavy twill cotton cloth used for soldiers' uniforms Sienna: A yellow based clay colour which is a yellow-brown pigment used 'raw' or its natural state and a reddish brown in its 'burnt' state Taupe: A very dark, warm grey brown Teak: A yellowish brown like the heavy resinous teakwood Red: Carmine: A strong to vivid cool red derived from cochineal, from the French Carmin Crimson: A bright medium value red with bluish cast very similar to carmine Magenta: A vivid purplish red produced by fuchsia dye, discovered in the year of the Battle of Magenta and named for its 'bloodiness' Maroon: A violet brown Scarlet: An intense warm red if medium value related to vermillion, cinnabar, Chinese red, calypso red Orange: Peach: A bright red orange tint Pimento: A strong red orange like the pepper Salmon: The colour of fresh salmon flesh from coho to sockeye to pink Shrimp: The bright pinky red orange of the crustacean Tangerine: A highly saturated, medium intensity brilliant orange hue Terra Cotta: The medium value reddish orange of baked clay Vermilion: A bright warm red Blue: Cerulean: Sky blue from the Latin term cerulean Cornflower: The clear blue of the flower Lapis Lazuli: A rich blue from azure names after the semiprecious stone Sapphire: The colour of the stone, medium light blue and bright Teal: The deep greenish blue hue of the duck Ultramarine: A blue like the deep blue purple of the pigment of powdered lapis lazuli which came from beyond the sea Purple: Cornflower: From the colour of the cornflower, redder than cornflower blue Lavender: A greyed purple blue like the flowers of the lavender plant Lilac: A pale tint of purple Mauve: A pale neutralized version of red
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