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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Motivation and Values

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Ryerson University
MKT 400
Marla Spergel

MKT400Chapter 4 Motivation and ValuesThe motivation processy Motivation is an internal state that activates goaloriented behaviour y Oncea need has been activated a state of tension exists that drives the customer to attempt to reduce or eliminate that need o Utilitariandesire to achieve some functional or practical benefit o Hedonican experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies y Motivation can be described in term of its strength or the pull it exerts on the consumer its direction or the particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tensionMotivational strengthy Early work on motivation ascribed behaviour to instinctthis view is now largely discredited y Drive theory focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal stomach grumbling o Homeostasisgoaloriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate this unpleasant state and return to a balanced one y Expectancy theory suggests that behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomespositive incentivesrather than pushed from withinMotivational directiony The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need is termed a want y Types of needs o Biogenic needsfood water air andshelter o Psychogenic needsacquired in the process of becoming a member of a culturestatus power affiliationMotivational conflicts y A goal has valence can be positive or negative y Positively valued goalpeople are motivated to approach the goal and will seek out products instrumental to attaining it y Negatively valued goalmotivated to avoid a negative outcome y Three general types of conflicts o Approachapproach conflictperson must choose between two desirable alternativesTheory of cognitive dissonancepremise that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives and that a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another
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