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Chapter 7

Chapter note from Sociology in Our Times 5th Canadian Edition: Chapter 7

by OneClass10477 , Winter 2011
12 Pages
169 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 103
Professor
Sal Guzzo
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7: Crime and Deviance
What is Deviance?
Most of us conform to the norms our group prescribes, but not all members do
Social control: systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage
conformity and to discourage deviance
Types of social control:
oProcess of socialization, individuals internalize societal norms and values
oUse of negative sanctions to punish rule-breakers and nonconforming acts
oJustice system, formal means of social control
oInformal means of social control shape our behaviour
Deviance: any behaviour, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms in the
society or group in which it occurs
Behavioural Deviance: a persons intentional or inadvertent actions
Individuals considered deviant by one group may be conformists in another group
Defining Deviance
Deviance is relative, an act becomes deviant when it is social defined as such
Line between deviant and nondeviant can be ambiguous
Eccentric and mentally ill hard to define
Mores more serious than folkways
Crime: is an act that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms,
and other sanctions
Juvenile delinquency : refers to a violation of law by young people under the age
of eighteen
Functionalist Perspectives on Crime and Deviance
Strain Theory: Goals and the Means to Achieve Them
www.notesolution.com
In a functioning society, deviance will be limited, most people share common cultural
goals
Deviance may be common because people may be willing to use whatever means they
can to achieve their goals
Strain theory: people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they
are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of
achieving those goals
Strain theory used to explain deviance in lower classes
Sociologies, Strain can also help explain deviance of upper class
Opportunity Theory: Access to Illegitimate Opportunities
Illegitimate opportunity structures: circumstances that provide an opportunity
for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot get through
legitimate channels
Look into gangs, why they sell drugs through illegitimate means, may start turf
wars when these illegitimate opportunities are unavailable, Lack this opportunity,
turn to retreatist forms of deviance, such as drinking and drug use
Opportunity theory expands strain theory by point out the relationship between
deviance and the availability of illegitimate opportunity structures
Control Theory: Social Bonding
Roots in Durkheims anomie theory
Anomic suicide occurs when a lack of social regulation, caused by factors such as
rapid economic change, creates a situation in which social organization is weak and
the individual lack moral guidance
Communities characterized by poverty, physical deterioration, and internal conflict
were too disorganized to exert effective control over residents, high level of deviance
Absence of controls such as families and churches, deviant behaviour such as
fighting and alcohol abuse may be common
Deviant behaviour is minimized when people have strong bonds that bind them to
families, school, peers, churches and other social institutions
www.notesolution.com
Social bond theory: holds that the probability of deviant behaviour increases when
a persons ties to society are weakened of broken
Social bonding consists of
oAttachment to other people
oCommitment to conventional lines of behaviour, such as schooling and job
success
oInvolvement in conventional activities
oBelief in the legitimacy of conventional values and norms
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Crime and Deviance
Focus on how people develop a self-concept and learn appropriate behaviour through
the process of socialization
Differential Association Theory
Differential association theory :states that individuals have a greater tendency
to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who
favour deviance over conformity
Eg, people looking to others for advice, or help
Critics question why many indidivuals who had extensive contact with people who
violate the law still conform most of the time
Does not adequately assess possible linkages between social inequality and criminal
behaviour
Labelling Theory
Two complementary process of deviance
oSome people act (or are believed to act) in a manner contrary to the
expectations of others
oOthers disapprove of an try to control this contrary behaviour
Labelling theory: suggests that deviants are those people who have been
successfully labeled as such by others
Labels are applied most easily to those who lack the power to resist them
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 7: Crime and Deviance What is Deviance? Most of us conform to the norms our group prescribes, but not all members do Social control: systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity and to discourage deviance Types of social control: o Process of socialization, individuals internalize societal norms and values o Use of negative sanctions to punish rule-breakers and nonconforming acts o Justice system, formal means of social control o Informal means of social control shape our behaviour Deviance: any behaviour, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms in the society or group in which it occurs Behavioural Deviance: a persons intentional or inadvertent actions Individuals considered deviant by one group may be conformists in another group Defining Deviance Deviance is relative, an act becomes deviant when it is social defined as such Line between deviant and nondeviant can be ambiguous Eccentric and mentally ill hard to define Mores more serious than folkways Crime: is an act that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and other sanctions Juvenile delinquency : refers to a violation of law by young people under the age of eighteen Functionalist Perspectives on Crime and Deviance Strain Theory: Goals and the Means to Achieve Them www.notesolution.com In a functioning society, deviance will be limited, most people share common cultural goals Deviance may be common because people may be willing to use whatever means they can to achieve their goals Strain theory: people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals Strain theory used to explain deviance in lower classes Sociologies, Strain can also help explain deviance of upper class Opportunity Theory: Access to Illegitimate Opportunities Illegitimate opportunity structures: circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot get through legitimate channels Look into gangs, why they sell drugs through illegitimate means, may start turf wars when these illegitimate opportunities are unavailable, Lack this opportunity, turn to retreatist forms of deviance, such as drinking and drug use Opportunity theory expands strain theory by point out the relationship between deviance and the availability of illegitimate opportunity structures Control Theory: Social Bonding Roots in Durkheims anomie theory Anomic suicide occurs when a lack of social regulation, caused by factors such as rapid economic change, creates a situation in which social organization is weak and the individual lack moral guidance Communities characterized by poverty, physical deterioration, and internal conflict were too disorganized to exert effective control over residents, high level of deviance Absence of controls such as families and churches, deviant behaviour such as fighting and alcohol abuse may be common Deviant behaviour is minimized when people have strong bonds that bind them to families, school, peers, churches and other social institutions www.notesolution.com
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