Textbook Notes (362,796)
Canada (158,054)
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SOC 103 (110)
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Chapter 7

Chapter note from Sociology in Our Times 5th Canadian Edition: Chapter 7

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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Sal Guzzo

Chapter 7: Crime and Deviance What is Deviance? Most of us conform to the norms our group prescribes, but not all members do Social control: systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity and to discourage deviance Types of social control: o Process of socialization, individuals internalize societal norms and values o Use of negative sanctions to punish rule-breakers and nonconforming acts o Justice system, formal means of social control o Informal means of social control shape our behaviour Deviance: any behaviour, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms in the society or group in which it occurs Behavioural Deviance: a persons intentional or inadvertent actions Individuals considered deviant by one group may be conformists in another group Defining Deviance Deviance is relative, an act becomes deviant when it is social defined as such Line between deviant and nondeviant can be ambiguous Eccentric and mentally ill hard to define Mores more serious than folkways Crime: is an act that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and other sanctions Juvenile delinquency : refers to a violation of law by young people under the age of eighteen Functionalist Perspectives on Crime and Deviance Strain Theory: Goals and the Means to Achieve Them www.notesolution.com In a functioning society, deviance will be limited, most people share common cultural goals Deviance may be common because people may be willing to use whatever means they can to achieve their goals Strain theory: people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals Strain theory used to explain deviance in lower classes Sociologies, Strain can also help explain deviance of upper class Opportunity Theory: Access to Illegitimate Opportunities Illegitimate opportunity structures: circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot get through legitimate channels Look into gangs, why they sell drugs through illegitimate means, may start turf wars when these illegitimate opportunities are unavailable, Lack this opportunity, turn to retreatist forms of deviance, such as drinking and drug use Opportunity theory expands strain theory by point out the relationship between deviance and the availability of illegitimate opportunity structures Control Theory: Social Bonding Roots in Durkheims anomie theory Anomic suicide occurs when a lack of social regulation, caused by factors such as rapid economic change, creates a situation in which social organization is weak and the individual lack moral guidance Communities characterized by poverty, physical deterioration, and internal conflict were too disorganized to exert effective control over residents, high level of deviance Absence of controls such as families and churches, deviant behaviour such as fighting and alcohol abuse may be common Deviant behaviour is minimized when people have strong bonds that bind them to families, school, peers, churches and other social institutions www.notesolution.com
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