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Chapter

BISC 101 Chapter Notes -Lymphatic System, Pleural Cavity, Fascia


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 101
Professor
Derek Bingham

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Unit 9 Body Structure 1
Directional Term
Explanation
Example
Superior / cephalic
Toward the head or upper part of a
structure
The superior extremity includes the arm,
forearm, and hand
Inferior / caudal
Away from the head of toward the end
of a structure
The inferior extremity includes the thigh,
leg, and foot
Medial
Toward the midline of the body
The medial side of the arm is the side
nearest the chest wall
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body
Eyes are lateral to the nose
Intermediate
Between two other structures
The intermediate cutaneous nerve of the
thigh is between the medial and lateral
nerves
Central
Toward the centre
The brain belongs to the central nervous
system
Peripheral
Away from the centre
Nerves of the hand are part of the
peripheral nervous system
Proximal
Toward the trunk or beginning of a
structure
The wrist is proximal to the hand
Distal
Away from the trunk or beginning of a
structure
The foot is distal to the ankle
Deep
Away from the surface
The humerus is deep relative to the skin
Superficial
Near the surface
Superficial fascia lies just under the skin
Median
In the middle of a structure ( medial)
Median nerve is in the centre of the arm
Parietal
Pertaining to or forming the outer wall of
the body cavity
The parietal pleura forms the outer layer
of the pleural sacs that surround the
lungs
Visceral
Pertaining to the covering of an organ
The visceral pleura forms the inner layer
of the pleural sacs and covers the
external surface of the lungs
Anterior
Ventral or front
The sternum forms part of the anterior
chest wall
Posterior
Dorsal or back
The posterior portion of the skull is
formed by the occipital bone
** In human anatomy the terms anterior/posterior are preferred over ventral/dorsal because humans walk
upright.
OBJECTIVE 1 Define the terms organ, system, and organism.
Organs structures of definite form and function composed of 2+ different tissues
Heart, spleen, brain, liver
System association of organs that have a common function
The lymphatic system, which protects the body against diseases, is composed of lymph, lymph vessels,
and structures or organs containing lymphatic tissue such as the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and
tonsils.
Organism highest level of organization where all parts of the body functioning with one another constitutes one
living individual
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