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BISC 101 (55)

Unit 9 - Body Structure

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Derek Bingham

Unit 9 – Body Structure 1 Directional Term Explanation Example Superior / cephalic Toward the head or upper part of a The superior extremity includes the arm, structure forearm, and hand Away from the head of toward the end The inferior extremity includes the thigh, Inferior / caudal of a structure leg, and foot Toward the midline of the body The medial side of the arm is the side Medial nearest the chest wall Lateral Away from the midline of the body Eyes are lateral to the nose Between two other structures The intermediate cutaneous nerve of the Intermediate thigh is between the medial and lateral nerves Toward the centre The brain belongs to the central nervous Central system Away from the centre Nerves of the hand are part of the Peripheral peripheral nervous system Proximal Toward the trunk or beginning of a The wrist is proximal to the hand structure Away from the trunk or beginning of a The foot is distal to the ankle Distal structure Deep Away from the surface The humerus is deep relative to the skin Superficial Near the surface Superficial fascia lies just under the skin Median In the middle of a structure ( medial) Median nerve is in the centre of the arm Pertaining to or forming the outer wall of The parietal pleura forms the outer layer Parietal the body cavity of the pleural sacs that surround the lungs Pertaining to the covering of an organ The visceral pleura forms the inner layer Visceral of the pleural sacs and covers the external surface of the lungs Ventral or front The sternum forms part of the anterior Anterior chest wall Dorsal or back The posterior portion of the skull is Posterior formed by the occipital bone ** In human anatomy the terms anterior/posterior are preferred over ventral/dorsal because humans walk upright. OBJECTIVE 1 – Define the terms organ, system, and organism. Organs – structures of definite form and function composed of 2+ different tissues  Heart, spleen, brain, liver System – association of organs that have a common function  The lymphatic system, which protects the body against diseases, is composed of lymph, lymph vessels, and structures or organs containing lymphatic tissue such as the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Organism – highest level of organization where all parts of the body functioning with one another constitutes one living individual Unit 9 – Body Structure 2 OBJECTIVE 2 – Specify the eleven body systems identify the major organs, and give a major function of each system. System Representative Organs Major Functions External support and protection Skin and structures associated with it, like Helps regulate body temperature Integumentary Eliminates waste hair, nails, sweat and oil glands Synthesizes vitamin D Receives stimuli like temperature or pain Supports and protects the body Skeletal Bones of the body and associated cartilages Provides leverage for movement and joints Produces blood cells Stores minerals Movement of body parts Muscle tissue of the body including skeletal, Maintains posture Muscular visceral, and cardiac Pumps blood Movement of food in digestive tract Alimentary tract and associated organs Physical/chemical breakdown of food for Digestive including salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, use by cells and pancreas Eliminates solid and other wastes Lungs and a series of passageways leading into Gas exchange (supplies O , eliminates CO ) Respiratory 2 2 and out of the lungs Helps regulate acid-base balance Internal transport (distributes 2 and nutrients & carries CO /wastes from cells) Cardiovascular 2 Blood, heart, and blood vessels Maintains acid-base balance (circulatory) Protects against disease Helps regulate body temperature Returns proteins + plasma to cardio system Lymph, lymph vessels and structures/organs Transports fats from the digestive system Lymphatic containing lymphatic tissue such as the spleen, Filters body f
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