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Chapter 5

FRHD 2040 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Earth Science, Lev Vygotsky

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2040
Triciavan Rhijn

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Program Design for Children
Chapter 5
Types of Play:
Free Play: Have as many choices of materials as possible and how they
choose to use the materials
Guided Play: The teacher has selected the materials, but the children can
choose how they use them
Directed Play: Teacher tells children how to accomplish a specific task
Characteristics of Play:
Play is Personally Motivated: The player must choose to participate
Play is Active: Requires some active involvement on the part of the player
Play is Often Nonliteral: Let’s pretend
Play Has No Extrinsic Goals: The outcome of play isn’t as important as the
participation in it
Players Supply Meaning to Play: They provide their own interpretation of
the materials
Play Has No Extrinsic Rules: The players must be able to alter the rules of
the activity as needed
Levels of Play:
Social Play Levels:
o Solitary Play: Play with no regards to what other children around
them are doing
o Onlooker Play: Playing alone, but also looking around at what others
are doing
o Parallel Play: Playing with same materials as other children, but each
doing so independently
o Associative Play: Several children play together in a loosely
organized fashion
o Cooperative Play: Each child accepts a designated role and is reliant
on others for achieving the goals of the play
Play With Objects:
o Practice Play: Children explore the possibilities of materials
o Symbolic Play: Use objects to represent other objects
o Game with Rules: Play according to pre-existing rules, or rules
they’ve made up on their own
o Games of Construction
Sociodramatic Play: Also called fantasy play, playing defined roles that they
have chosen
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Vygotsky on Play:
1. Play creates the child’s zone of proximal development
2. Play facilitates the separation of thought from actions and objects
3. Play facilitates the development of self-regulation
Intellectual Development:
Both these types of play contribute to cognitive growth
o Exploratory Play: No objective other than exploration
o Rule-Governed Play: Child has objectives
Children playing are often engaged in problem solving behaviour
Social and Emotional Development:
Play pushes children out of egocentric thought patterns
o Children in play situations are forced to consider the viewpoints of
their playmates (therefore becoming less egocentric)
Often play out their fear and concerns
Play can explore different emotions and social roles
o i.e. children might try on the role of a bully
Physical Development:
Develop fine and gross motor skills through play
o Gross motor skills i.e. run, jump, hop
o Fine motor skills i.e. Stringing beads, solving puzzles
Play is sensorimotor
Explore objects and people and investigate the effects of their actions on
these objects/people
Mostly exploratory or practice play
Focused on the process rather than the outcome of their play
Often engage in sociodramatic play based on their own experiences
Want to involve others in their play
Early Primary Grades:
Sociodramatic play without the needing of objects to be too realistic
Like constructive play
Games with rules become more important at this age
Middle Childhood:
Less constructive play may be simply because kids have less access to
materials in the classroom
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