Textbook Notes (367,823)
Canada (161,434)
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SOC 1500 (173)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1: Textbook Summary

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SOC 1500
Andrew Hathaway

Chapter 1 Crime and Criminal Justice Crime touches all segments of society Crime cuts across racial class and gender linesIt involves acts that shock the conscience and other that seem relatively harmless Criminal justice system the complete institutional process of decision making from the initial investigation or arrest by police to the eventual release of the offender and his or her reentry into societyThe various sequential criminal justice stages through which the offender passes are police courts and corrections Intimate violence a form of violent behaviour that occurs in a context of familiarity such as wife or child abuseResearch shows that habitually aggressive behaviour is often learned in homes in which children are victimized and parents serve as aggressive role models Learned violence then persists into adulthoodAfter the HolmolkaBernardo case about 13 of Canadians said they did not feel safe walking alone in their own neighbourhood even though crime rates stayed the same The public fear of crime is an important barometer of social health and how people feel about their communities Thirdhand knowledge of crime has longterm effects creating fear of crime a negative view of the police and the courts and an attitude favouring harsher punishments for offenders A poll in 2000 found that more people favoured putting resources into reducing crime than favoured putting resources into reducing poverty Criminology the scientific study of the nature extent cause and control of criminal behaviourDevoted to the development of valid and reliable information about the causes of crime as well as crime patterns and trendsCriminologist one who brings objectivity and method to the study of crime and its consequences Try to leave out personal experiences biases and personal valuesEdward Sutherland and Donald Cressey define criminology as The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon It includes within its scope the processes of making laws of breaking laws and of reacting toward the breaking of laws The objective of criminology is the development of a body of general and verified principles and of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law crime and treatment
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