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Chapter 2

ADM2336 Chapter 2: Job Performance

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Department
Administration
Course
ADM2336
Professor
Craig Kuziemsky
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter  2                 Job  Performance   JOB  PERFORMANCE   Job  Performance:  Employee  behaviours  that  contribute  either  positively  or   negatively  to  the  accomplishment  of  organizational  goals.   • This  definition  of  job  performance  includes  behaviours  that  are  within  the   control  of  employees,  but  it  puts  a  boundary  on  which  behaviours  are   relevant  to  job  performance.   WHAT  DOES  IS  MEAN  TO  BE  A  “GOOD  PERFORMER”?   • Three  broad  categories  of  job  performance:   o Task  performance   o Citizenship  behaviour   o Counterproductive  work  behaviour   TASK  PERFORMANCE   Task  performance:  Employee  behaviours  that  are  directly  involved  in  the   transformation  of  organizational  resources  into  the  goods  or  services  that  the   organization  produces.   • An  online  job  description  will  focus  on  task  performance  –  the  tasks,  duties,   and  responsibilities  that  are  a  core  part  of  the  job   • The  set  of  explicit  obligations  that  an  employee  must  fulfill  to  receive   compensation  and  continued  employment     • One  way  of  categorizing  job  performance  is  to  consider  the  extent  to  which   the  context  of  the  job  is  routine  or  changing.     o Routine  task  performance   o Adaptive  task  performance   o Creative  task  performance   • Routine  task  performance  involves  well-­‐known  responses  to  demands  that   occur  in  a  normal,  routine,  or  otherwise  predictable  way.   o In  these  cases,  employees  tend  to  act  in  more  or  less  habitual  or   programmed  ways  that  vary  little  from  one  instance  to  another.   • Adaptive  task  performance  involves  employee  responses  to  task  demands   that  are  novel,  unusual,  or  at  the  very  least,  unpredictable.     o Such  adaptive  behaviours  are  becoming  increasingly  important  as   globalization,  technological  advances,  and  knowledge-­‐based  work   increase  the  pace  of  change  in  the  workplace.   • Creative  task  performance  is  the  degree  to  which  individuals  develop  ideas   or  physical  outcomes  that  are  both  novel  and  useful.   o This  increase  in  the  value  of  creative  performance  can  be  explained  by   the  rapid  technological  change  and  intense  competition   • Many  organizations  identify  task  performance  behaviours  by  conducting  a   job  analysis:   1. A  list  of  all  the  activities  involved  in  a  job  is  generated   2. Each  activity  on  the  list  is  rated  by  “subject  matter  experts”  according   to  things  like  the  importance  and  frequency  of  the  activity   3. The  activities  that  are  ranked  highly  in  terms  of  their  importance  and   frequency  are  retained  and  used  to  define  task  performance   CITIZENSHIP  BEHAVIOUR   Citizenship  behaviour  is  voluntary  employee  activities  that  may  or  may  not  be   rewarded  but  that  contribute  to  the  organization  by  improving  the  overall  quality  of   the  setting  in  which  work  takes  place.   • Research  suggests  two  main  types  categories  of  citizenship  behaviour,   differing  according  to  who  benefits  from  the  activity:  co-­‐workers  or  the   organization   o Interpersonal  citizenship  behaviour   o Organizational  citizenship  behaviour   • Interpersonal  citizenship  behaviour:  such  behaviours  benefit  co-­‐workers   and  colleagues  and  involve  assisting,  supporting,  and  developing  other   organizational  members  in  a  way  that  goes  beyond  normal  job  expectations.   o Helping  involves  assisting  co-­‐workers  who  have  heavy  workloads,   aiding  them  with  personal  matters,  and  showing  new  employees  the   ropes  when  they  first  arrive  on  the  job.   o Courtesy  refers  to  keeping  co-­‐workers  informed  about  matters  that   are  relevant  to  them,   o Sportsmanship  involves  maintaining  a  good  attitude  with  co-­‐ workers,  ev
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