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Chapter 3

Chapter Notes for Chapter 3 of Human Physiology 5e

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Biological Sciences
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Human Physiology (Fifth Edition) Silverthorn, D. U. Chapter 3 Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues Advantages: compartments separate biochemical processes that might otherwise conflict with one another; barriers allow contents within compartments to differ from adjacent ones Disadvantages: barriers can make it difficult to move needed materials from one compartment to another Functional Compartments of the Body The body has 3 major body cavities o Cranial cavity (skull): contain the brain o Thoracic cavity (thorax): bounded by spine and ribs, surrounds the heart o Abdominopelvic cavity: surrounds the organs in the abdomen and the pelvis (stomach, spleen, urinary bladder, etc.) Lumens of Some Organs Are Outside the Body o Lumen: the interior of any hollow organ; may be wholly or partially filled with air or fluid; essentially, an extension of the external environment, material in the lumen is not part of the bodys internal environment until it crosses the wall of that particular organ (hole in bead analogy) Functionally, the Body has Three Fluid Compartments o Intracellular fluid, plasma, interstitial fluid (plasma, interstitial = extracellular fluid) Biological Membranes all membranes have a uniform thickness of about 8 nm two meanings of membranes: 1. Tissue, 2. Phospholipid-protein boundary layer The Cell Membrane Separates the Cell from its Environment o Cell membrane = plasma membrane = plasmalemma o Functions of the cell membrane: 1. Physical isolation: physical barrier separating intracellular and extracellular fluid 2. Regulation of exchange with the environment: controls entry of ions and nutrients, elimination of cell wastes, and product releases 3. Communication between the cell and its environment: contains proteins that enable cell to react to its external environment 4. Structural support: proteins in the membrane hold cytoskeleton in place to maintain cell shape Membranes are Mostly Lipid and Protein o Membranes also contain a small amount of carbs o Protein-lipid ratio varies depending on membrane source; in general, the more metabolically active a membrane is, the more proteins it contains www.notesolution.com
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