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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

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Charles H

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Chapter 4: Contemporary Urbanization & Environmental Dynamics
-the first urban revolution began over 6,000 years ago with the first cities in Mesopotamia
-these new cities were reflections of concentrated social power
-the first urban revolution, independently experienced in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, was a
new way of living in the world
-the second urban revolution began in the 18th century with the linkage between urbanization and
-we are now in the third urban revolution which began in the mid 20th century
-the third urban revolution has increased urban populations, development of megacities and the
growth of giant metropolitan regions
-services have become the cutting-edge of rapid urban economic development
-urban landscapes are revalorized and devalorized at an often bewildering pace
-there were major environmental resonances of this dramatic shift
Urban Dynamics
-the first trend is that the world have become increasingly urban
-there has been a major demographic and social shift with important consequences for
environmental quality
-currently ¾ s of global population growth occurs in the urban areas of developing countries
-significant amounts of development loans and funds ending up concentrated in urban areas
-development projects that were focused in cities included water and sanitation systems,
electrical systems, and the buildings of roads
-the net result was the encouragement of massive rural to urban migration
-in many developing cities, the population growth often exceeded the formalcoping capacity of
the city
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