6 November 2013
THE SCOPE OF TRAINING
TRAINING is the effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members. There are
distinguishes between training which tends to bemore narrowly focusedandorientedtoward short-term
performance concerns. EVELOPMENT tends to be oriented more toward broadening an individual’s skills
for future responsibilities.
Revenue and profitability is positively correlated to the amount of training it gives its employees. The
conducted on multimillion-dollar simulators.
AS TRATEGIA PPROACH TOTRAINING
The goal of training is to contribute to the organization’s overall goals. The most important goal is to
improve organizational performance, followed by the development of leaders and aligning business and
Sometimes organizations do not connect with goals and instead train to do whatever the organization is
doing. As a result, training programs are misdirected and poorly designed:
Not all of a firm’s strategic initiatives can be accomplished with training
Not all training programs, no matter how widely they are adopted by other organizations, will be
a strategic imperative for a firm
To ensure a firm’s training and development investment has maximum impact, a strategic approach
should be used that involves four phases:
o Organization Analysis
o Task Analysis
o Person Analysis
o Instructional Objectives
o Trainee Readiness
o Learning Principles
o On-the-Job Methods
o Off-the-Job Methods
o Management Development
o Behavior (transfer)
o Results PHASE 1: CONDUCTING THE NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Business conditions change rapidly, keeping abreast of the types of training a firm’s employees need to
remain competitive can be a challenge. If employees fail to achieve productivity objectives or receive an
excessive number of customer complaints it suggests firm’s training is inadequate. HIEF LEARNING
O FFICERSare top executives within their firms who are responsible for making certain that a company’s
training is timely and focused on the firm’s top strategic issues. The needs assessment should be
conducted utilizing the 3 different types of analysis: organization analysis, task analysis, and person
O RGANIZATION A NALYSIS is the examination of the environment, strategies, and resources of the
organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed. Firm’s training should revolve
and responsibilities and adjust to new cultures and ways of conducting business. Technological change,
globalization, and quality improvements, influence the way work is done and types of skills needed to do
it. If organization is restructuring, downsizing, or undertaking new employee empowerment or teamwork
initiatives, these efforts will impact the firm’s training requirements. Economic and public policy issues
influence corporate training needs (IE: 9/11 Terrorist attack increased airport security). Conducting an
organization analysis also involves closely examining a firm’s resources (technological, financial, and
human) available to meet company’s training objectives. To cope with budget constraints yet continue to
meet their strategic imperatives, firms have become more focused on efficiently using their training
budgets. Some outsource their training programs, or at least part of it, to external partners to cut costs.
Some purchase “off the shelf” course materials developed by training companies rather than develop
their own. Others is for companies to partner with other firms in supply chains to jointly train their
employees more cost effectively.
TASK ANALYSIS is reviewing the job description and specifications to identify the activities performed in a
particular job and the KSAOs needed to perform them, determining what the content of a training
program should be on the basis of a study of the task and duties involved in the job. First step is to list all
the tasks or duties included on the job. Second step is to list the steps performed by the employee to
complete each task. Once job is understood, type of performance required along with skills and
knowledge can be defined. This information helps trainers select program content and choose most
effective training methods.OMPETENCY A SSESSMENT is an analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge
needed for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs. Itgoes beyond describing traits anemployee
must have to successfully perform the work, it captures elements of how those traits, personality traits,
and interpersonal skills should be used within an organization’s context and culture.
PERSON A NALYSISis determining the specific individuals who need training and those who do not. It is
important because a thorough analysis helps organizations avoid mistake of sending all employees into
training when some do not need it. It also helps managers determine what prospective trainees are able
to do when they enter training so the programs can be designed to emphasize areas which are deficient.
If performance deficiencies are due to ability problems, training is likely to be a good solution. If it is due
to poor motivation or factors outside employee’s control, training is not the answer. PHASE 2: DESIGNING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
Once training needs have been determined, next step is to design the type of learning environment
necessary to enhance learning. Training programs should focus on: training’s instructional objectives,
“readiness” of trainees and their motivation, principles of learning, characteristics of instructors.
INSTRUCTIONAL O BJECTIVESdescribetheskillsorknowledgetobeacquiredandtheattitudestobechanged.
Performance-centered objective is widely used because it lends itself to an unbiased evaluation of results
(IE: To repair, to adjust, to construct).
TRAINEE READINESS AND MOTIVATION
Trainee readiness is whether or not the experience of trainees have made them receptive to the training
that they will receive. Trainees should be screened to ensure they have the background knowledge and
skills necessary to absorb what will be presented to them. Receptiveness and readiness of participants in
training programs can be increased by having them complete questionnaires about why they are
attending training and what they hope to accomplish as a result.
Trainee motivation is the organization needs to help employees understand the link between the effort
they put into training and the payoff. Training objectives should relate to trainees’ individual needs to
succeed. Allowing employees to undergo training in areas that they want to pursue rather than merely
assigning them certain training activities can be motivating.
Important step is to give full consideration to psychological principles of learning, characteristics of
training programs that help employees grasp new material, make sense of it in own lives, and transfer it
back to their jobs.
Principles of learning:
Goal Setting increases interest, understanding, and effort directed toward the training
Meaningfulnessof Presentation traineeslearnnew informationbetteriftheycanconnect itwith
things they are already familiar with (examples)
Modelling increases salience of behavioral training (learn by watching – demonstrations, DVDs)
Individual Differences trainers should incorporate variety into their presentations, training
programs should try to account for and accommodate these individual differences to facilitate
each person’s style and rate of learning
Active Practice and Repetition trainees should be given frequent opportunities to practice job
tasks in expected performance, practice causes behaviors to become second nature
Whole VS. Part Learning tasks can be broken down into parts, determine most effective manner
for completing each part of the total process, consider the nature of task to be learned, if broken
down successfully, it should be broken down to facilitate learning or taught as a unit
Massed VS. Distributed Learning the amount of time devoted to practice in one session, spacing
out training will result in faster learning and longer retention (distributed learning)
Feedback and Reinforcement helps individuals focus on what they are doing right and what they
role. Plateau is when progress does not occur (straight horizontal line) and occurs because of
reduced motivation or when a person is discouraged. B EHAVIORAL MODIFICATION is a technique that operates on the principle that behavior that is rewarded, or positively reinforced, will be
exhibited more frequently in the future, whereas behavior that is penalized or unrewarded will
decrease in frequency. SPOTR EWARDS are programs that award employees “on the spot” when
they do something particularly well during training or on the job (IE: Cash, gift cards, time off)
Desirable traits of instructors:
Knowledge of subject
Sense of humor
PHASE 3: IMPLEMENTING THE TRAINING PROGRAM
In choosing training methods, determine which are appropriate for KSAOs to be learned (IE: Factual
those used for non-managerial employees and those used for managers.
TRAININGM ETHODS FOR NON -MANAGERIAL EMPLOYEES
A wide variety of methods are available for training employees at all levels.
O N-THE-JOB TRAININGis a method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions
from their supervisororother trainer.Advantages: provides handsonexperience, build goodrelationship
with new employees (viewed as most effective). Disadvantages: lack of well-structured training
environment, poor training skills on the part of managers, absence of well-defined job performance
schedule for each trainee, help managers establish a nonthreatening atmosphere, conduct periodic
evaluations after training.
APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING is a system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given
thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of
the work. Programs involve cooperation between organizations and their labor unions, between industry
and government, or between organizations and local school systems.
COOPERATIVE T RAININGis a training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal
INTERNSHIP PROGRAMS are programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations
that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they
will perform in work organizations. Organizations benefit by getting student-employees with new ideas,
energy, and eagerness to accomplish their assignments. To increase effectiveness of internships:
Assign intern to projects that are accomplishable and provide training as required
Appoint a mentor or supervisor to guide the intern Solicit project suggestions from other staff members
Rotate interns throughout the organization
Treat interns as part of the organizational staff and invite them to staff meetings
Establish a process for considering interns for permanent hire
CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION enables maximum number of trainees to be handled by minimum number of
instructors.LENDED LEARNING uses multiple training methods to achieve optimal learning on the part of
trainees (IE: Lectures and demonstrations with films).
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION is good for allowing individuals to work at their own pace (self-directed
learning), involves the use of books, manuals, or computers to break down subject matter content into
highly organized, logical sequences that demand a continual response on the part of the trainee.
Advantage: incorporates established learning principles discussed earlier in chapter, training
individualized, trainees actively involved, feedback and reinforcemen