Textbook Notes - Chapter 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Management (MGH)
Joanna Heathcote

MGTB27 01 Week 8 Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture (pg. 250 277) - Google has a culture that includes collaboration, a flat structure with very little hierarchy, kitchens that serve healthy food and encourage employees to eat together and socialize Social Influence in Organizations - People often act differently from how they normally would under social influence - In many social settings, people are dependent on others and this sets the stage for influence to occur Information Dependence and Effect Dependence - Information dependence is reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act (e.g. How nice is our boss? How satisfying is this job of mine?) - Individuals are motivated to comparing their own thoughts, feelings, and actions with those to acquire information about their adequacy (can be as strong as objective reality) - Effect dependence is reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment - Having an interest in how an individual member think and act as well as having a member who frequently desires the approval of the group promotes effect dependence - Organizations have plenty of effects available to influence individual members o Formal level: managers have a fair array of rewards and punishments available o Informal level: reward with cooperative behaviour with praise, friendship and lack of cooperation might be harassment or name calling Social Influence in Action - Much of the information and many of the effects on which group members are dependent are oriented toward enforcing group norms Motives for Social Conformity - Like how the Roman Catholic priest conform to the norms of the church hierarchy, there must be systems in place that classify different motives for conformity - Compliance o Compliance is conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment (simplest and most direct motive for conformity) o Primarily involves effect dependence o Individuals only adjusts their behaviour to the norm and is not really subscribing to the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm (e.g. convicts conforming to formal prison norms out of compliance) - Identification o Identification is conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself o Elements of effect dependence and information dependence is present here o E.g. a newly promoted executive attempts to dress and talk like her admired boss - Internalization o Internalization is conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm o Conformity is due to internal rather than external forces (confirm because it is seen as right, not because it achieves rewards, avoid punishment, or please others) www.notesolution.comMGTB27 02 Week 8 o E.g. religious leaders conform to the norms of their religions The Subtle Power of Compliance - Disagreement on compliance can be reduced if one ceases conformity (person may adopt a scapegoat role) or gradually having them accept the beliefs, values, and attitudes of the norms - Simple compliance can set the stage for more internalized beliefs and this process is known as organizational socialization Organizational Socialization - Socialization is the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization - Socialization is the primary learning process for new members where the organization .422:3L.,9089K047J,3L],9L438.:O9:70,3;,O:089430Z202-078 - Different socialization methods (e.g. mentoring) influence proximal socialization outcomes (e.g. learning) which lead to more longer-term outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction) - Learning in socialization for newcomers are learning of: o Rask (e.g. skills and knowledge needed to perform their job), o Role (e.g. learning appropriate behaviour and expectations) o Work group (learning norms and values) o 7J,3L],9L4342,L3 0 J N34ZL3J9K047J,3L],9L438KL8947.:O9:704754OL9L.8 - Goal of socialization is to provide new hires with information and knowledge about their role to avoid problems of role conflict and role ambiguity - There are two kinds of fit that are important for socialization (proximal outcomes) o Person-job fit P-J fit %K02,9.K-09Z003,3025O4008N34ZO0J08NLOO8,3,-LOL9L08,39K0 requirements of a job o Person-organization fit P-O fit %K02,9.K-09Z003,3025O4008507843,O;,O:08,39K0;,O:0841,3 organization - P-J and P-O fit are strongly influenced by the socialization process and related to job attitudes and behaviours - Organizational identification is the extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what is perceived to represent - Classified as distallong-term 4:9.4204184.L,OL],9L43ZK070L9701O0.98,3L3L;L:,O8 O0,73L3J,3,..059,3.041,347J,3L],9L438.:O9:70 - Socialization is important because it has a direct effect on proximal socialization outcomes (e.g. learning, P-J fit and P-O fit) which leads to more positive distal outcomes (e.g. organizational identification) Stages of Socialization - Since organizational socialization is an ongoing process, we can divide this process up into 3 stages: one before entry, one immediately following entry, and after one has been a member for some period of time - Anticipatory Socialization o Happens a considerable amount even before a person becomes a member of the organization o Can acquire anticipatory socialization through attending college or university or when organizational representatives discuss the organization with potential hires www.notesolution.com
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