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Chapter 3

MGHB02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Subjective Constancy, Central Tendency, Social Perception


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Xuefeng Liu
Chapter
3

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Ch.3 Perception, attribution and diversity
Perception
- The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and
meaning to the environment
- It helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses.
keyword of this definition is interpreting
Components of perception
- It has 3 components perceiver, a target that is being perceived and some
situational context in which the perception is occurring
The perceiver
The perceivers experience, needs and emotions can affect his or her
perceptions of a target
Past experience lead the perceiver to develop expectations, and they
affect current perceptions
Our needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to
perceive what we wish to perceive if we are hungry, we tend to “see”
more edible things in ambiguous pictures
Emotions such as anger, happiness, or hear, can influence our
perceptions
Perceptual defense the tendency for the perceptual system to defend
the perceiver against unpleasant emotions
The target
Perception involved interpretation and the addition of meaning to the
target, and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to
interpretation and addition
The situation
Every instance of perception occurs in some situational context, and
this context can affect what one perceives
It can add information to the target
Social identity theory
- A theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their
characteristics and membership in social categories
- We tend to answer “who are you” with our social categories such as student,
accountants, etc
- Our personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics (interest)
- Our social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social
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groups (gender, nationality, occupation)
- Social identity theory helps us understand how the components of perceptual
system operate in the formation of perceptions
A model of the perceptual process
Bruners model
1. Unfamiliar target encountered
2. Openness to target cues
3. Familiar cues encountered
4. Target categorized
5. Cue selectivity
6. Categorization strengthened
- Perception is selective we don’t use all the cues
- Perceptual constancy refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the
same way over time or across situation
- Perceptual consistency refers to the tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in
such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target
Basic biases in person perception
- Primacy and recency effect
Primacy effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first
impression
Recency effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last
impression
- Reliance on central traits
Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to
a perceiver
Physical appearance is a common central trait in work settings that is related
to a variety of job-related outcomes
- Implicit personality theories
Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics
go together
Ex, expect hardworking people to be honest
- Projection
The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to
others
- Stereotyping
The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and
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