MGHD27H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Emo

30 views9 pages
8 Apr 2011
School
Course
Professor
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Important effect situation has is add info about the target
Situational context is what changes ones perceptionex. casual critical comment to a worker
from boss a week before he decides if the worker will get promoted – likely to perceive the
comment differently if he/she is not up for promotion
Social Identity Theory
-people tend to form perceptions of themselves and others based on their characteristics and
memberships in social categories
-our sense of self is composed of:
Personal identity: based on our unique personal characteristics (interests, abilities, traits)
Social identity: based on our perception that we belong to various social groups (gender,
nationality, religion, occupation etc)
-categorize ourselves and others to make sense of and understand the social environment
-choice of specific categories depend on what is most salient ( ; ) and appropriate to the
situation – ex. in business meeting, categorize by job titles
-develop sense of identity, values, beliefs and ways of thinking, acting and feeling
-form perceptions of others b/c social identities are relational & comparative
perception differ by attributes and characteristics in situationsex. view aunt as professor at
school, but relative at home
-perceive ppl in terms of attributes and characteristics that one associate with their social category
relative to other categories
-if situation changes, categorization and relation b/w perceiver and target change
-ppl tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more +ve and favourable way than
those in other categories, social identity theory is useful for understanding stereotyping &
discrimination
A Model of the Perceptual Process
-Jerome Bruner, psychologist who developed a model of perceptual process
-Bruner stated that when perceiver encounters unfamiliar target, perceiver is very open to
informational cues contained in the target and the situation surrounding it – perceiver need info to
base perceptions of target and actively seek cues to solve ambiguity
-Once perceive encounters familiar cues that let them make rough categorization of target from social
identity theory
-Perceiver become less open and more selective in finding cues
-As categorization becomes stronger, perceiver actively ignores or even distorts cues that violate
initial perceptions – doesnt mean cant change, just need many cues to recategorize the target
- Demonstrates 3 important characteristics of perceptual process:
Perception is selective – perceivers dont always use all available cues; those used are then
given special emphasis -> perception is efficient b/c both aid and hinder our perceptual
accuracy
Page 2 of 9
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Perceptual constancy: tendency for target to be perceived in the same way over time or across
situations
Perceptual consistency: tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they
fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target – distort cues that are discrepant with
our general image of a person to make the cues consistent with this image
Basic Biases in Person Perception
-Primacy ( )and Recency ( ) Effects
Primacy effect: tendency for perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions
Often has lasting impact (illustrate constancy); form of selectivity
Recency effect: tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions
Weigh cues encountered most recently heavily– ex. signing big contract today give
excuse for a whole year’s bad sales performance
-Reliance on Central Traits
Central Traits: personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a
perceiverdepends on perceivers interests and situation
Physical appearancecommon central trait thats powerful influence on perceptions of
others in work settings that is related to a variety of job related outcomes
Those who are attractive tend to be perceived as good – social competence,
qualifications, potential job success
Physical height = most obvious = related to job performance, promotion and success
-Implicit Personality Theories
Personal theories that ppl have about which personality characteristics go together
Ex. perceive hardworking ppl to be honest
Inaccuratemisunderstanding
-Projection
Page 3 of 9
Model
Unfamiliar target encountered
Openness to target cues
Familiar cues encountered
Target categorized
Cue Selectivity
Categorization strengthened
Example
New co-worker
Observation; search for information
Co-worker is Stanford graduate with good grades
Co-worker isgood man” with “great potential
Co-workers poor performance ignored or distorted
Co-worker is stillgood man” with “great potential
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

important effect situation has is add info about the target. Social identity theory people tend to form perceptions of themselves and others based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories our sense of self is composed of: personal identity: based on our unique personal characteristics (interests, abilities, traits) ;(cid:0) situation ex. in business meeting, categorize by job titles develop sense of identity, values, beliefs and ways of thinking, acting and feeling form perceptions of others b/c social identities are relational & comparative. Jerome bruner, psychologist who developed a model of perceptual process. Once perceive encounters familiar cues that let them make rough categorization of target from social identity theory. Perceiver become less open and more selective in finding cues. As categorization becomes stronger, perceiver actively ignores or even distorts cues that violate initial perceptions doesn"t mean can"t change, just need many cues to recategorize the target. Demonstrates 3 important characteristics of perceptual process:

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers