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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

9 Pages

Management (MGH)
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Important effect situation has is add info about the target
Situational context is what changes ones perceptionex. casual critical comment to a worker
from boss a week before he decides if the worker will get promoted – likely to perceive the
comment differently if he/she is not up for promotion
Social Identity Theory
-people tend to form perceptions of themselves and others based on their characteristics and
memberships in social categories
-our sense of self is composed of:
Personal identity: based on our unique personal characteristics (interests, abilities, traits)
Social identity: based on our perception that we belong to various social groups (gender,
nationality, religion, occupation etc)
-categorize ourselves and others to make sense of and understand the social environment
-choice of specific categories depend on what is most salient ( ; ) and appropriate to the
situation – ex. in business meeting, categorize by job titles
-develop sense of identity, values, beliefs and ways of thinking, acting and feeling
-form perceptions of others b/c social identities are relational & comparative
perception differ by attributes and characteristics in situationsex. view aunt as professor at
school, but relative at home
-perceive ppl in terms of attributes and characteristics that one associate with their social category
relative to other categories
-if situation changes, categorization and relation b/w perceiver and target change
-ppl tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more +ve and favourable way than
those in other categories, social identity theory is useful for understanding stereotyping &
A Model of the Perceptual Process
-Jerome Bruner, psychologist who developed a model of perceptual process
-Bruner stated that when perceiver encounters unfamiliar target, perceiver is very open to
informational cues contained in the target and the situation surrounding it – perceiver need info to
base perceptions of target and actively seek cues to solve ambiguity
-Once perceive encounters familiar cues that let them make rough categorization of target from social
identity theory
-Perceiver become less open and more selective in finding cues
-As categorization becomes stronger, perceiver actively ignores or even distorts cues that violate
initial perceptions – doesnt mean cant change, just need many cues to recategorize the target
- Demonstrates 3 important characteristics of perceptual process:
Perception is selective – perceivers dont always use all available cues; those used are then
given special emphasis -> perception is efficient b/c both aid and hinder our perceptual
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Perceptual constancy: tendency for target to be perceived in the same way over time or across
Perceptual consistency: tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they
fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target – distort cues that are discrepant with
our general image of a person to make the cues consistent with this image
Basic Biases in Person Perception
-Primacy ( )and Recency ( ) Effects
Primacy effect: tendency for perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions
Often has lasting impact (illustrate constancy); form of selectivity
Recency effect: tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions
Weigh cues encountered most recently heavily– ex. signing big contract today give
excuse for a whole year’s bad sales performance
-Reliance on Central Traits
Central Traits: personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a
perceiverdepends on perceivers interests and situation
Physical appearancecommon central trait thats powerful influence on perceptions of
others in work settings that is related to a variety of job related outcomes
Those who are attractive tend to be perceived as good – social competence,
qualifications, potential job success
Physical height = most obvious = related to job performance, promotion and success
-Implicit Personality Theories
Personal theories that ppl have about which personality characteristics go together
Ex. perceive hardworking ppl to be honest
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Unfamiliar target encountered
Openness to target cues
Familiar cues encountered
Target categorized
Cue Selectivity
Categorization strengthened
New co-worker
Observation; search for information
Co-worker is Stanford graduate with good grades
Co-worker isgood man” with “great potential
Co-workers poor performance ignored or distorted
Co-worker is stillgood man” with “great potential

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