Textbook Notes (380,765)
CA (168,209)
UTSC (19,296)
MGH (426)
MGHD27H3 (37)
Grover (7)
Chapter

Ch 7,8,9,10,13

25 Pages
108 Views

Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHD27H3
Professor
Grover

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 25 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 7
I. What Is a Group?
A group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal. Interaction is the most basic
aspect of a group as it suggests who is in the group and who is not. Groups exert tremendous influence on us. They are social
mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviours.
Formal work groups are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. The most
common formal group consists of a manager and those employees who report to that manager.
Informal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. Informal
groups can either help or hurt an organization, depending on their norms for behaviour.
II. Group Development
While employees often know each other before new groups are formed, simple familiarity does not replace the necessity for
team development.
A. Typical Stages of Group Development
Leaders and trainers have observed that many groups develop through a series of stages over time. Each stage presents the
members with a series of challenges they must master in order to achieve the next stage. These stages are forming, storming,
norming, performing, and adjourning.
Forming. Group members try to orient themselves by testing the waters.
Storming. Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is
developing.
Norming. Members resolve the issues that provoked the storming, and they develop social consensus.
Performing. The group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment.
Adjourning. Rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are common. Members often exhibit
emotional support for each other.
B. Punctuated Equilibrium
When groups have a specific deadline by which to complete some problem-solving task, we often observe a very different
development sequence from that described above. The punctuated equilibrium model is a model of group development that
describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions.
Phase 1. Phase 1 begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the group’s existence. Although it gathers
information and holds meetings, the group makes little visible progress toward the goal.
Midpoint Transition. The midpoint transition occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time toward the groups deadline.
The transition marks a change in the group’s approach, and how the group manages it is critical for the group to show
progress.
Phase 2. Decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2. It concludes with a final meeting that
reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product.
III. Group Structure and Its Consequences
Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is put together. The
most basic structural characteristics along which groups vary are size and member diversity.
A. Group Size
Although the smallest possible group would consist of two people, most work groups, including task forces and committees
usually have between three and twenty members.
Size and Satisfaction. In general, members of larger groups report less satisfaction with group membership than those who
find themselves in smaller groups. Increased potential for conflict, reduced opportunity for participation, inhibition, and
inability to identify contributions to the group are among the reasons for this phenomenon.
Size and Performance. Different types of tasks are performed by groups where performance could depend upon the type of
task and the number of individuals involved. For some tasks, like moving a heavy rock, the potential performance of the group
increases with group size. These are additive tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance
of individual group members.
Other tasks, like searching for a single error in a complicated computer program, also may show performance gains as group
size increases, but that is because the chance of including a crucial problem solver is greater.
Disjunctive tasks are tasks in which performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member.
However, as groups get larger, performance may also decrease as a function of process losses. Process losses are group
performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups. Thus, actual performance
= potential performanceprocess losses. Finally, group performance on conjunctive tasks, like assembly line work, decreases
as group size increases. Conjunctive tasks are tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest
group member.
www.notesolution.com
B. Diversity of Group Membership
Research suggests that heterogeneous or diverse groups have a more difficult time communicating and becoming cohesive, so
group development takes longer. Once developed, diversity has little impact on performance and sometimes performance is
better on tasks that require creativity and problem solving.
C. Group Norms
Social norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other. They are
codes of conduct that specify what individuals should do and not do and standards against which we evaluate the
appropriateness of behaviour. All of us are influenced by norms which regulate many of our daily activities.
Norm Development. Norms develop to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour. They develop to regulate
behaviours that are considered at least marginally important. Individuals comply with these norms because the norms often
correspond to privately held attitudes.
Some Typical Norms. There are different types of norms in organizations which affect the behaviour of members. Norms that
seem to crop up in most organizations and affect the behaviour of members include the following:
Dress norms. Social norms frequently dictate the kind of clothing people wear to work.
Reward allocation norms. There are at least four norms that might dictate how rewards, such as pay, promotions, and informal
favours, could be allocated in organizations: equity, equality, reciprocity, and social responsibility.
Performance norms. The performance of organizational members might be as much a function of social expectations as it is of
inherent ability, personal motivation, or technology.
D. Roles
Roles are positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them. Roles represent packages of norms
that apply to particular group members. In organizations, there are two basic kinds of roles. First, there are designated or
assigned roles that are formally prescribed by an organization to facilitate task achievement. Assigned roles indicate "who
does what." and "who can tell others what to do." In addition, there are also emergent roles which are roles that develop
naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members or to assist in formal job accomplishment.
Role Ambiguity. Role ambiguity exists when the goals of one's job or the methods of performing it are unclear. Ambiguity
might be characterized by confusion about how performance is evaluated, how good performance can be achieved, or what the
limits of ones authority and responsibility are. A variety of elements can lead to ambiguity.
Organizational factors. Some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their function in the organization.
The role sender. Role senders might have unclear expectations of a focal person.
The focal person. Even role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not be fully digested by the focal person.
The practical consequences of role ambiguity include job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, and
intentions to quit. Managers can reduce role ambiguity by providing clear performance expectations and performance
feedback.
Role Conflict. Role conflict exists when an individual is faced with incompatible role expectations. There are several different
types of role conflict.
Intrasender role conflict occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant.
Intersender role conflict occurs when two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations.
Interrole conflict occurs when several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations.
Person-role conflict occurs when role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of the
role occupant.
The most consistent consequences of role conflict are job dissatisfaction, stress reactions, lowered organizational
commitment, and turnover intentions. Managers can help prevent role conflict by avoiding self-contradictory messages,
conferring with other role senders, being sensitive to multiple role demands, and fitting the right person to the right role.
E. Status
Status is the rank, social position, or prestige accorded to group members. It represents the groups evaluation of a member.
Organizations have both formal and informal status systems.
Formal Status Systems. The formal status system represents managements attempt to publicly identify those people who have
higher status than others. This is accomplished by the application of status symbols. Status symbols are tangible indicators of
status. Status symbols might include titles, particular working relationships, the pay package, the work schedule, and the
physical working environment. The criteria for achieving formal organizational status includes seniority in ones work group
and ones assigned role in the organization.
Informal Status Systems. Informal status symbols also exist in organizations and can operate just as effectively. Sometimes,
job performance is a basis for the acquisition of informal status. So a good hitter or a good performer will be accorded status,
although status symbols might be lacking.
www.notesolution.com
Consequences of Status Differences. Status affects the ways in which people communicate with each other. Most people like
to communicate with others at their own status or higher, rather than with people who are below them. As a result,
communication is likely to move up the status hierarchy in organizations. As well, higher status people do more talking and
have more influence.
Reducing Status Barriers. Although status differences can be powerful motivators, status differences also tend to inhibit the
free flow of communication in organizations and can make it more difficult to foster a culture of teamwork and cooperation.
As a result, many organizations are doing away with status symbols such as executive dining rooms, and reserved parking in
an attempt to foster a culture of teamwork and cooperation across the ranks. The use of e-mail has also been found to level
status barriers, thus facilitating communication between people at all levels of the organization.
IV. Group Cohesiveness
Group cohesiveness is a critical property of groups. Cohesive groups are those that are especially attractive to their members.
Members are especially desirous of staying in the group and tend to describe the group in favourable terms.
A. Factors Influencing Cohesiveness
There are several important factors which might make one group more cohesive than others.
Threat and Competition. External threat and competition can force members to work together when group goals are in danger.
External threats to survive have often resulted in greater cohesiveness.
Success. When a group accomplishes a goal, members feel pride and tend to become more cooperative with each other as the
group becomes more attractive to its members.
Member Diversity. Task accomplishment will be a more important factor than member similarities in determining
cohesiveness.
Size. Larger groups have a more difficult time in becoming and staying cohesive.
Toughness of Initiation. Groups that are tough to get into are more attractive than those that are easy to join.
B. Consequences of Cohesiveness
There are a number of consequences of group cohesiveness.
More Participation in Group Activities. Because cohesive groups are attractive to their members, they should be especially
motivated to participate in group activities.
More Conformity. Because they are so attractive and coordinated, cohesive groups are well equipped to supply information,
rewards, and punishment to individuals. Thus, highly cohesive groups are in a superb position to induce conformity to group
norms.
More Success. Cohesiveness contributes to group success. In general, cohesive groups are good at achieving their goals. That
is, cohesive groups tend to be successful in accomplishing what they wish to accomplish. In a good labour relations climate,
group cohesiveness should foster high productivity. In a climate marked by tension and disagreement, cohesive groups might
pursue goals that result in low productivity. Thus, cohesive groups tend to produce more or less than non-cohesive groups. In
addition, there is less variability in the productivity of members of cohesive groups.
V. Social Loafing
Social loafing is the tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task. It is one of the reasons
for process losses in large groups and takes two forms. In the free rider effect, people lower their effort to get a free ride at the
expense of other group members. This is the phenomenon of others not pulling their weight on a group project. In the sucker
effect, people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free riding. That is, they are trying to restore equity in the
group.
There are a number of ways to counteract social loafing.
Make individual performance more visible. The simplest way to do this is to keep the group small.
Make sure that the work is interesting. If the work is involving, intrinsic motivation should counteract social loafing.
Increase feelings of indispensability. Training and the status system can provide group members with unique inputs.
Increase performance feedback. Increased feedback from the boss, peers, and customers should encourage self-correction.
Reward group performance. Members are more likely to monitor and maximize their own performance when the group
receives rewards for effectiveness.
VI. What Is a Team?
Some writers have suggested that a team is different from a group” because in a team a synergy develops such that the
group’s efforts are greater than the sum of its parts. However, the term team is more generally used to describe groups in
organizational settings and the terms can be used interchangeably. Many organizations now use team-based work
arrangements in an attempt to improve efficiency, quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, and/or the speed of production.
VII. Designing Effective Work Teams
According to J. Richard Hackman, a work group is effective when (1) its physical or intellectual output is acceptable to
management and to the other parts of the organization that use this output, (2) group members needs are satisfied rather than
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
CHAPTER 7 I. What Is a Group? A group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal. Interaction is the most basic aspect of a group as it suggests who is in the group and who is not. Groups exert tremendous influence on us. They are social mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviours. Formal work groups are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. The most common formal group consists of a manager and those employees who report to that manager. Informal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. Informal groups can either help or hurt an organization, depending on their norms for behaviour. II. Group Development While employees often know each other before new groups are formed, simple familiarity does not replace the necessity for team development. A. Typical Stages of Group Development Leaders and trainers have observed that many groups develop through a series of stages over time. Each stage presents the members with a series of challenges they must master in order to achieve the next stage. These stages are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Forming. Group members try to orient themselves by testing the waters. Storming. Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing. Norming. Members resolve the issues that provoked the storming, and they develop social consensus. Performing. The group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment. Adjourning. Rites and rituals that affirm the groups previous successful development are common. Members often exhibit emotional support for each other. B. Punctuated Equilibrium When groups have a specific deadline by which to complete some problem-solving task, we often observe a very different development sequence from that described above. The punctuated equilibrium model is a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions. Phase 1. Phase 1 begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the groups existence. Although it gathers information and holds meetings, the group makes little visible progress toward the goal. Midpoint Transition. The midpoint transition occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time toward the groups deadline. The transition marks a change in the groups approach, and how the group manages it is critical for the group to show progress. Phase 2. Decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2. It concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product. III. Group Structure and Its Consequences Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is put together. The most basic structural characteristics along which groups vary are size and member diversity. A. Group Size Although the smallest possible group would consist of two people, most work groups, including task forces and committees usually have between three and twenty members. Size and Satisfaction. In general, members of larger groups report less satisfaction with group membership than those who find themselves in smaller groups. Increased potential for conflict, reduced opportunity for participation, inhibition, and inability to identify contributions to the group are among the reasons for this phenomenon. Size and Performance. Different types of tasks are performed by groups where performance could depend upon the type of task and the number of individuals involved. For some tasks, like moving a heavy rock, the potential performance of the group increases with group size. These are additive tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members. Other tasks, like searching for a single error in a complicated computer program, also may show performance gains as group size increases, but that is because the chance of including a crucial problem solver is greater. Disjunctive tasks are tasks in which performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member. However, as groups get larger, performance may also decrease as a function of process losses. Process losses are group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups. Thus, actual performance = potential performance process losses. Finally, group performance on conjunctive tasks, like assembly line work, decreases as group size increases. Conjunctive tasks are tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member. www.notesolution.com B. Diversity of Group Membership Research suggests that heterogeneous or diverse groups have a more difficult time communicating and becoming cohesive, so group development takes longer. Once developed, diversity has little impact on performance and sometimes performance is better on tasks that require creativity and problem solving. C. Group Norms Social norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other. They are codes of conduct that specify what individuals should do and not do and standards against which we evaluate the appropriateness of behaviour. All of us are influenced by norms which regulate many of our daily activities. Norm Development. Norms develop to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour. They develop to regulate behaviours that are considered at least marginally important. Individuals comply with these norms because the norms often correspond to privately held attitudes. Some Typical Norms. There are different types of norms in organizations which affect the behaviour of members. Norms that seem to crop up in most organizations and affect the behaviour of members include the following: Dress norms. Social norms frequently dictate the kind of clothing people wear to work. Reward allocation norms. There are at least four norms that might dictate how rewards, such as pay, promotions, and informal favours, could be allocated in organizations: equity, equality, reciprocity, and social responsibility. Performance norms. The performance of organizational members might be as much a function of social expectations as it is of inherent ability, personal motivation, or technology. D. Roles Roles are positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them. Roles represent packages of norms that apply to particular group members. In organizations, there are two basic kinds of roles. First, there are designated or assigned roles that are formally prescribed by an organization to facilitate task achievement. Assigned roles indicate "who does what." and "who can tell others what to do." In addition, there are also emergent roles which are roles that develop naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members or to assist in formal job accomplishment. Role Ambiguity. Role ambiguity exists when the goals of one's job or the methods of performing it are unclear. Ambiguity might be characterized by confusion about how performance is evaluated, how good performance can be achieved, or what the limits of ones authority and responsibility are. A variety of elements can lead to ambiguity. Organizational factors. Some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their function in the organization. The role sender. Role senders might have unclear expectations of a focal person. The focal person. Even role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not be fully digested by the focal person. The practical consequences of role ambiguity include job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, and intentions to quit. Managers can reduce role ambiguity by providing clear performance expectations and performance feedback. Role Conflict. Role conflict exists when an individual is faced with incompatible role expectations. There are several different types of role conflict. Intrasender role conflict occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant. Intersender role conflict occurs when two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations. Interrole conflict occurs when several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations. Person-role conflict occurs when role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of the role occupant. The most consistent consequences of role conflict are job dissatisfaction, stress reactions, lowered organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. Managers can help prevent role conflict by avoiding self-contradictory messages, conferring with other role senders, being sensitive to multiple role demands, and fitting the right person to the right role. E. Status Status is the rank, social position, or prestige accorded to group members. It represents the groups evaluation of a member. Organizations have both formal and informal status systems. Formal Status Systems. The formal status system represents managements attempt to publicly identify those people who have higher status than others. This is accomplished by the application of status symbols. Status symbols are tangible indicators of status. Status symbols might include titles, particular working relationships, the pay package, the work schedule, and the physical working environment. The criteria for achieving formal organizational status includes seniority in ones work group and ones assigned role in the organization. Informal Status Systems. Informal status symbols also exist in organizations and can operate just as effectively. Sometimes, job perf
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit