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Chapter 008

MGMC02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 008: Mass Media, Confirmation Bias, Determinant


Department
Management (MGM)
Course Code
MGMC02H3
Professor
Bill Mc Conkey
Chapter
008

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CHAPTER 8:
Problem Recognition & Information
Search
PROBLEM RECOGNITION
Problem Recognition is the perceived difference between an ideal and an actual state. Ideal
State is the way consumers would like a situation to be. Actual State is the real situation as
consumers perceive it now. Greater discrepancy between ideal and actual = higher MAO to
action.
Ideal state can be based on future goals or aspirations and by reference groups to be accepted
by others as a guide for behavior. Actual state can be based on physical factors, needs, or
external stimuli changing perception.
Marketing Implications
Marketing put consumers in state of problem recognition and motivate to start decision
process
2 techniques:
oCreate new ideal state
oEncourage dissatisfaction with actual state
Pose as solution to consumer’s problem
INTERNAL SEARCH: SEARCHING FOR INFO FROM MEMORY
Internal Search is the process of recalling stored information from memory. Because
consumers have limited capacity and memory traces decay over time, consumers recall only
small subset of stored information.
1. Extent of search – vary from brand name to extensive for information (depends on
MAO). Recall more information when felt involvement, perceived risk, need for cognition
= high. Experts with more knowledge and experience have greater ability to search
internally. Can only recall information if they have opportunity to do so – time pressure,
distractions limit internal search
2. Nature of search – recall of 4 major types of information:
oBrandsconsideration or evoked set is the subset of top of mind brands
evaluated when making a choice (2 to 8 brands), vary in size, stability, variety,
and preference
IE: People fly rather than train even though train is cheaper and faster
because plane is top of mind
Company should enhance product linkage to occasion or situation familiar
to consumers to increase chance product retrieved as part of
consideration set

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Brands recalled = more likely to be chosen
If cannot recall brands, set determined by availability of products on shelf
or suggestions of salespeople
Increasing recall of brand :
1. Prototypicality
2. Brand familiarity – well known more easily recalled, reduces
misidentification
3. Goal and usage situations – associate drinks with beach
4. Brand preference – positive attitudes more easily included in set
5. Retrieval cues – increase chance brand included in set
oAttributes – tend to be summary or simplified form rather than original detail
Factors influencing recall of attribute :
1. Accessibility or availability – having strongest associative links,
most likely to be recalled, marketers make more accessible by
repeatedly drawing attention to it in communications
2. Diagnostic Information helps discriminate among objects to
recall
a. IE: Computers all at same price = not diagnostic (not
useful) to distinguish among them
b. Negative information more diagnostic than positive or
neutral because it is more distinctive
c. Consequently, consumers give negative information
greater weight in decision making process, rejecting
alternatives with negative qualities
3. Salient Attributes (prominent) – top of mind, more important
4. Attribute Determinant are both salient and diagnostic
5. Vividness – presented in concrete words, pictures, or instructions
to imagine
6. Goals – determine which attribute is recalled
a. IE: Vacation to economize, likely to recall price when
considering possible destinations
b. Marketers use this to position offerings (packages)
oEvaluations – attitudes of likes and dislikes, easier to remember than attributes
Online Processing is actively evaluating a brand as they view an ad for it
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