PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Phineas Gage, Jane Goodall, Operational Definition

76 views11 pages
Published on 26 Sep 2016
School
Department
Course
PSYA01
Chapter 2: Reading and Evaluating Scientific Research
2.1 Principles of Scientific Research
Objectivity: assumes that certain facts about the world can be observed and tested independently
from the indiv who describes them (eg. the scientists)
Subjective: when knowledge of an event is shaped by prior beliefs, expectations, experiences
and even their mood
Quality Scientific Research: Criteria
1. Based on measurements and are objective, valid, and reliable
2. Can be generalized
3. Uses techniques that can reduce bias
4. Made public
5. Can be replicated
Objective Measurements: the measure of an entity or behaviour that, within an allowed margin
of error, is consistent across instruments and observers.
Eg) your weight will be the same regardless of the scale you use to measure it, it may vary
slightly from scale-to-scale (margin of error)
Variable: the object, concept, or event being measured. (eg. Weight in ex above)
- used to refer to anything that can take on multiple 'values'
fMRI: fxnl magnetic resonance imaging: allows researchers to view brain and see which
areas are activated while you perform diff tasks (remembering words/ viewing emotional
pics)
Operational Definitions: statements that describes the procedures (operations) and specific
measures that are used to record observations
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
PSYA01
Chapter 2: Reading and Evaluating Scientific Research
Validity: the degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measured what is claims to
measure
- operational definition really reflects the theoretical entity it is mean to represent
checking validity
- Manipulation checks
- Convergence from the use of other operational definitions
- inter-rated reliability: raters agree on the measurements that were taken
categorical variable eg. Eye colour - values of green, blue, brown (or is it?)
continuous variable bc its values lie of a continuum (height) (or do they?)
- can make it categorical (adolescence/youth/over 40)
Whether a variable is categorical or continuous often depends on how it is
measured
Reliability: when it provides consistent and stables answers across multiple observations and
points in time
- refers to how accurately the dependent variable can be measured
Generalizability: degree to which one set of results can be applied to other situations, indivs, or
events
Population: group that researchers want to generalize about
Sample: a select grp of population members
- can be generalized to population as a whole
Random Sample: sampling technique in which every indiv of a pop has an equal chance of
being included
Convenience Samples: samples of indivs who are most readily available
Ecological Validity: results of the laboratory study can applied to/repeated in the natural
env'ment
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
PSYA01
Chapter 2: Reading and Evaluating Scientific Research
Sources of Bias
Researchers Bias: types of bias unintentionally introduced by the researchers
Demand Characteristics: inadvertent cues given off by the researcher or experimental content
that provide info about how participants are expected to behave
Social Desirability: participants respond in ways that increase their chances of being viewed
favourably
Subject/Participant Bias
Hawthorn Effect: a behaviour change that occurs as a result of being observed
- eg) Jane Goodall and the chimps
Reducing Bias: anonymity and confidentiality
The Placebo Effect: measurable and experienced improvement in health or behaviour that
cannot be attributed to medication or treatment
Single-blind Study: the participants do not know the true purpose of the study, or else do not
know which type of treatment they are receiving
Double-blind Study: neither the participant nor the experimenter knows the exact treatment for
any indiv
Peer Review: a process in which papers submitted for pub in scholarly journals are read and
critiqued by experts in the specific field of study
- edited and deemed appropriate for the journal
Replication: process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome each time
Poor Reseach: Characteristics
untestable hypothesis, anecdotes, a biased selection of available data, appeals to
authority, appeals to common sense
Falsibiable: the hypothesis is precise enough that it could be proven false
early personality work by Freud (id, ego and super ego) was impossible to test
Anecdotal Evidence: an indiv's story story or testimony about observations or events that is
used to make a claim as evidence
Data Selection Bias: a very selective slice of data would present one (biased) result, but a
thorough and scientific rep of the data would present a diff view of the same issue
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.