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Psychology Chapter 5:
Sensation
-Everything we learn is detected by sense organs and transmitted to our brains by
sensory nerves
-Provides useful information about external world
-Milner and Goodale: Vision evolved to provide distal sensory control of movements
that the animals make in order to survive and reproduce
-Audition is extremely important for our social behaviour
-Vision: provides info about distant events, as with smell, tells us about sources of
aromatic molecules far upwind
Sensory Processing:
-Sensation: detection of elementary properties of a stimulus, ex. warmth, color
-Perception: detection of the move complex properties of a stimulus, including its
location and nature; involves learning,
-Ex. seeing color red is a sensation and seeing a red apple is perception
-Pure sensation involves “prewiredphysiological mechanisms
Transduction:
-Sense organs: detect stimuli provided by light, sound, odour, taste, or mechanical
contact with environment
-this info is transmitted to brain by neural impulses (action potential)
-Task of the brain is to analyze info and reconstruct
-Transduction: conversion of physical stimuli into changes in the activity of receptor
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cells of sensory organs
-Receptor Cells: neuron that directly responds to a physical stimulus, such as light,
vibrations, or aromatic molecules
Sensory Coding:
-Code = system of symbols or signals representing info
-Have two forms: anatomical coding and temporal coding
-Anatomical Coding: means by which the nervous system represents information;
different features are coded by the activity of different neurons
-Temporal Coding: means by which the nervous system represents information;
different features are coded by the pattern of activity of neurons
-simplest form = rate (how intense it is)
Psychophysics:
-Psychophysics: branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between
physical stimuli and perceptual experience
-Weber: investigated ability of humans to discriminate between various stimuli
-Just-noticeable difference (jnd) = smallest change in magnitude of stimuli that c person
can detect
-Weber fraction: ratio between jnd and the magnitude of a stimulus; reasonably
constant over the middle range of most stimulus intensities
-Fechner: used Webers concept to measure peoples sensations and showed how a
logarithmic function could be derived from Webers principal
-Norwich and Wong: provided a technical overview of how these perspectives relate to
each other
-S.S. Stevens: came up with the formula: S = kIb (exponential b)
-S = psychological magnitude of sensation
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-I = intensity of physical stimulus
-Threshold: point at which a stimulus, or a change in the value of a stimulus can just be
detected
-Difference Threshold: An alternative name for jnd
-Absolute Threshold: minimum value of a stimulus that can be detected
-Signal Detection Theory: mathematical theory of the detection of stimuli, which
involves discriminating a signal from the noise in which it is embedded and which takes
into account participants willingness to report detecting the signal
-Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC curve): graph of hits and false
alarms of participants under different motivational conditions; indicates peoples ability
to detect a particular stimulus
Vision:
Light:
-consists of radiant energy (similar to radio waves)
-Wavelength: distance between adjacent waves of radiant energy; in vision, most
closely associated with the perceptual dimension of hue
-electromagnetic spectrum = part our eyes can detect
-visible spectrum = part we see as light
The Eye and its Functions:
-Cornea: transparent tissue covering the front of the eye
-Sclera: tough outer layer of the eye; the “whit of the eye
-Iris: pigmented muscle of the eye that controls the size of the pupil
-glaucoma: aqueous humour is produced too quickly or if passage that returns it to the
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Document Summary

Everything we learn is detected by sense organs and transmitted to our brains by sensory nerves. Milner and goodale: vision evolved to provide distal sensory control of movements that the animals make in order to survive and reproduce. Audition is extremely important for our social behaviour. Vision: provides info about distant events, as with smell, tells us about sources of aromatic molecules far upwind. Sensation: detection of elementary properties of a stimulus, ex. warmth, color. Perception: detection of the move complex properties of a stimulus, including its location and nature; involves learning, Ex. seeing color red is a sensation and seeing a red apple is perception. Sense organs: detect stimuli provided by light, sound, odour, taste, or mechanical contact with environment. This info is transmitted to brain by neural impulses (action potential) Task of the brain is to analyze info and reconstruct. Transduction: conversion of physical stimuli into changes in the activity of receptor www. notesolution. com cells of sensory organs.

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