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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes - Part Nine

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Large, solid objects cast a sound shadow; just as opaque objects cast a shadow in the
If a source on your right produces a high-frequency sound, your right ear will receive more
intense stimulation than your left ear will
The brain uses this difference to calculate the location of the source of the sound
When the source of a sound is located to the side of the head, axons in the right and left
auditory nerves will fire at different times
Initial processing occurs in the brain stem in a region known as the superior olive
Stimulation involving different temporal discrepancies activates different regions of a the
superior olive
Older listeners show smaller MLDs (masking level difference) than younger listeners
Older listeners will find it difficult to follow a conversation in a noisy environment
We have 2 senses specialized for detecting chemicals in our environment: taste and smell
Gustation (taste): is the simplest of the sense modalities
The tongue has papillae: small bumps on the tongue that contain a group of taste buds
Taste bud: small organ that contains a number of receptor cells, each of which is shaped
rather like a segment of an orange
Cells have hair-like projections called microvilli that protrude through the pore of the taste
bud into the saliva that coats the tongue and fills the trenches of the papillae
Umami refers to the taste of monosodium glutamate; genes that code for its receptors have
been identified
Sodium plays a unique role in the regulation of our body fluid
If the body’s store of sodium falls, we cannot retain water and our blood volume will fall
The function of the bitterness receptor is to avoid ingesting poisons
Olfaction (the sense of smell): olfactory system sends information to the limbic system, a
part of the brain that plays a role in both emotions and memories
Pheromones: chemical signals, usually detected by smell or taste, that regulate reproductive
and social behaviours between animals
Receptor cells lie in the olfactory mucosa; patches of mucous membrane located on the roof
of the nasal sinuses, just under the base of the brain
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