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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Readings (very detailed and helpful) SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOUR Edition 4


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Chapter
11

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Chapter 11: Intelligence and Thinking
Excluding page 347 ("THINKING") to page 356 (""to these errors")
Prologue: Multiplicity of intelligence? A case study of brain damage
Mr. V suffered a massive stroke in his right hemisphere that paralyzed the left side of his
body
He can tell you about his paralyzed leg, about the fact that he is in a wheelchair, and so
on, but he does not put these facts together and realize that his days of walking are over
Mr. V is very intelligent, but his judgment can be lacking b/c of the stroke damage
Intelligence: the general term used to refer a persons ability to learn and remember info,
to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the info to their own behavior in an
adaptive way
oAny definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgments
Differential approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation
of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to
solve problem
Developmental approach: an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way
children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world
Information processing approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses
on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
Spearmans two-factor theory
Charles Spearman proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is
determined by two factors:
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oG (general) factor: according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all
intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and
eduction of correlates (eduction, noteducation, is the process of drawing or bringing
outthat is, of figuring out from given facts)
oS (specific) factor: according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a
particular task
persons score on a particular test depends on two things: the persons specific ability (s)
on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or general
reasoning ability
Evidence from factor analysis
Factor analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of
tests
Factor analysis provides clues about the nature of intelligence, but it cannot provide a
theory of intelligence
Thurstone administered a series of 56 tests to 218 college students and then performed a
factor analysis…seven factors have been extracted which are labeled verbal comprehension,
verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed
Cattell performed a second-order factor analysis and found two major factor…Horn and
Cattell called there factors:
oFluid intelligence is defined by relatively culture-free tasks, such as those that measure
the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series
of items
oCrystallized intelligence is defined by tasks that require people to have acquired info
from their culture, such as vocab and the kind of info learned in schools
-Cattell regards fluid intelligence as closely related to a persons native capacity for
intellectual performance; in other words, it represents a potential ability to learn and
solve problems
-Cattell regards crystallized intelligence as what a person has accomplished through
the use of his or her fluid intelligence—what he or she has learned
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-Horn cites evidence suggesting that both factors are learned but also based to a degree
on heredity
An information processing theory of intelligence
According to Robert Sternberg, the degree of success that people achieve in life is
strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their unique
combinations of strengths and weaknesses
Successful intelligence: according to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and
manage personal strengths and weaknesses
Sternbergs triarchic theory of intelligence:
oAnalytic intelligence: according to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people use to plan
and execute tasks; includes metacomponents (planning), performance components
(processes actually used to perform the task—i.e. word recognition and working
memory), and knowledge acquisition components (ability to acquire vocab words)
oCreative intelligence: according to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively with novel
situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously
oPractical intelligence: according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the behaviours
that were subject to natural selection: adaptation—fitting oneself into ones environment
by developing useful skills and behaviours; selection—finding ones own niche in the
environment; and shapingchanging the environment (i.e. a person who talents are not
appreciated by his or her employer may decide to start his or her own biz)
-After sustaining massive damage to the frontal lobes, people often continue to score
well on standard intelligence tests but such people lose the ability to plan their lives or
even their daily activities
Neuropsychological theories of intelligence
Gardner has formulated a theory of multiple intelligences, rejecting the idea of a single or
even a few primary types of intelligence…believed that intelligences are situated within cultures
Gardner concludes that there are 8 intelligences:
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