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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Readings (very detailed and helpful) SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOUR Edition 4

17 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 15: Social Psychology
Prologue: Social psychology and salespeople
-Lowballing: a technique whereby a salesperson quotes a very low price, only to find a
reason 9for example, a mistake while reading the invoice) to raise the price later
-Social psychology: the branch of psychology that studies our social nature—how the
actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours
Social cognition:
-Social cognition: the processes involved in perceiving, interpreting, and acting on social
information
Schemata and social cognition
-Impression formation: the way in which we integrate info about another’s traits into a
coherent sense of who the person is
Schema
-Schema: a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and creates info about
a person, place, or thing
-Aid us in interpreting the world
-Research has demonstrated that understanding is greater when people know the title of
the passage before it is read
Central traits
-Central traits: personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of
other traits (i.e. when someone is described to bewarm you have positive reactions and when
someone is described to becold” you have negative feelings)
-Recent work suggests that the negative influence of thecold trait is stronger than the
positive influence of the “warm trait and this is b/c there is already a bias toward positivity in
impressions of people
www.notesolution.com
The primary effect
-Primary effect: the tendency to form impressions of people based of the first info we
receive about them
-We develop trait lists ourselves: we observe what a person does and says, we purposefully
think about what those behaviours reveal about his or her personal qualities
-Researchers suggested that people may generate trait labels from observing a persons
behavior (i.e. combined the traitbravery” with firefighter who did a heroic rescue)
The self
-Self-concept: self-identity. Ones knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself
-Self-concept is dynamic; it changes with experience
-Thinking of ourselves only in terms of who we are at present does not accurately reflect
how we will think of ourselves in the future or the kind of person we might become
-Self: a persons distinct individuality
-Self-schema: a mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about
oneself; a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that constitute the
self-concept
Culture and social psychology
-Cross-cultural psychology: a branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on
behavior
-Cultures differ with respect to two major classes of variables: biological (i.e. diet,
genetics) and ecological (i.e. geography, climate)
-Cultural psychologists believe that basic psychological processes may be universal, but
that these processes are informed by culture
-Western cultures emphasize the uniqueness of the individual and an appreciation of being
different from others while Japanese and other Eastern cultures emphasize paying attention to
others and the relatedness of the individual and others
-Researchers have conceptualized two construals (to construe something is to interpret it or
to explain its meaning) of the self that reflect cultural differences
www.notesolution.com
othe independent construal emphasizes the uniqueness of the self, its autonomy from
others, and self reliance
othe interdependent construal emphasizes the interconnectedness of people and the role
others play in developing an individuals self-concept
ohigh self-concept clarity more closely matches an independent construal of self than
interdependent
Attribution
-attribution: the process by which people assume the causes of other peoples behavior
Disposition versus situation
-external factors: people, events, and other stimuli in an individuals environment that can
affect his or her thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and behaviours
-internal factors: an individuals traits, needs, and intentions, which can affect his or her
thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and behaviours
-our behaviour is dictated by social customby the characteristics of the situation
- we learn to characterize people as friendly/generous by observing their behaviour in a
variety of situations
Kelleys theory of attribution
-We attribute the behaviour of other people to external (situational) or internal (personal)
causes on the basis of three types of info: consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency
-Consensual behaviour: behaviour that is shared by many people; behaviours that is
similar from one person to the next. To the extent that people engage in the same behavior, their
behaviour is consensual
-Distinctiveness: the extent to which a person behaves differently toward different people,
events, or other stimuli
-Consistency: the extent to which a persons behaviour is consistent across time toward
another person, an event, or a stimulus
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 15: Social Psychology Prologue: Social psychology and salespeople - Lowballing: a technique whereby a salesperson quotes a very low price, only to find a reason 9for example, a mistake while reading the invoice) to raise the price later - Social psychology: the branch of psychology that studies our social naturehow the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours Social cognition: - Social cognition: the processes involved in perceiving, interpreting, and acting on social information Schemata and social cognition - Impression formation: the way in which we integrate info about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is Schema - Schema: a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and creates info about a person, place, or thing - Aid us in interpreting the world - Research has demonstrated that understanding is greater when people know the title of the passage before it is read Central traits - Central traits: personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of other traits (i.e. when someone is described to be warm you have positive reactions and when someone is described to be cold you have negative feelings) - Recent work suggests that the negative influence of the cold trait is stronger than the positive influence of the warm trait and this is bc there is already a bias toward positivity in impressions of people www.notesolution.com The primary effect - Primary effect: the tendency to form impressions of people based of the first info we receive about them - We develop trait lists ourselves: we observe what a person does and says, we purposefully think about what those behaviours reveal about his or her personal qualities - Researchers suggested that people may generate trait labels from observing a persons behavior (i.e. combined the trait bravery with firefighter who did a heroic rescue) The self - Self-concept: self-identity. Ones knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself - Self-concept is dynamic; it changes with experience - Thinking of ourselves only in terms of who we are at present does not accurately reflect how we will think of ourselves in the future or the kind of person we might become - Self: a persons distinct individuality - Self-schema: a mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about oneself; a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that constitute the self-concept Culture and social psychology - Cross-cultural psychology: a branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behavior - Cultures differ with respect to two major classes of variables: biological (i.e. diet, genetics) and ecological (i.e. geography, climate) - Cultural psychologists believe that basic psychological processes may be universal, but that these processes are informed by culture - Western cultures emphasize the uniqueness of the individual and an appreciation of being different from others while Japanese and other Eastern cultures emphasize paying attention to others and the relatedness of the individual and others - Researchers have conceptualized two construals (to construe something is to interpret it or to explain its meaning) of the self that reflect cultural differences www.notesolution.com
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