B45: Behaviour Modification
Chapter 17: Using Punishment- Time out and Response Cost
Time out - defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem
Time out is short for time out from positive reinforcement.
•Time out from positive reinforcement- a type of negative punishment in which, contingent on the
occurrence of the problem behaviour, the person loses access to positive reinforcers for a brief period.
Typically, the person is removed from the reinforcing environment in a time out procedure.
Two Types of Time Out:
Nonexclusionary time out- a time out procedure in which, contingent on the problem behaviour, the person is
removed from all sources of reinforcement but is not removed from the room where the problem
i.e. face a wall
Exclusionary time out- a time out procedure in which the person is briefly removed from the reinforcing
environment- typically to another room-contingent on the occurrence of a problem behaviour.
i.e. go to principles room
USING REINFORCEMENT WITH TIME OUT
Whenever you use time out you should also use a differential reinforcement procedure.
•a differential reinforcement procedure increases an alternative behaviour to replace the problem or provide
the reinforcer for the absence of the problem behaviour.
CONSIDERATIONS IN USING TIME OUT
What is the function of the problem behaviour?
•Time out is appropriate to use with problem behaviours that are maintained by positive reinforcement
involving social or tangible reinforcers.
•Time out is not appropriate to use with problem behaviours maintained by negative reinforcement or
Is time out practical in the given situation?