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Chapter 14

Chapter 14. Psychotherapy, Consciousness, and Well-being


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC18H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik
Chapter
14

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Human consciousness has struggled to find the right relation with emotions.
Mindfulness has developed into a form of psychotherapy, with positive emotions by shifting activation to the left
hemisphere.
This contrasts the medical approach of trying to directly relieve the suffering and anguish of such symptoms.
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In Western therapy, the therapist tries to work with the client to make sense of emotion-based symptoms.
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Later, his idea was that neurotic people suffered from inner conflict, such as feeling both sexually attracted
to someone and feeling inhibited by the prohibitions of society.
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Most enduringly, Freud proposed a therapy of listening carefully, with respect, and with what he called
"evenly hovering attention," to patients who suffered from emotional disorders such as anxiety disorders
and depression.
Freud'sfirst form of psychotherapy focused on emotionally traumatic events in a patient's earlier life.
There are now many different kinds of psychological therapy, and most therapists are eclectic in which they
incorporate many different variants into their practice.
Therapyis an interaction with another person in which, as patient or client, one can discover some of the
properties of one's emotion schemas -and can to some extent change how these schemas operate.
Three kinds of therapy: psychoanalysis, cognitive-behaviouraltherapy, emotion-focusedtherapy.
Psychoanalysis: unconscious schemas of relating.
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It is the manifestation of emotion schemas, mental models that embody ways of relating to others that have
become habitual.
The term relational self refers to the beliefs and emotions of self-hood that derive from earlier relationships.
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The idea of psychoanalytic therapy is that our relationships are so fundamental to every aspect of life,
including our mental health, that if they are based on figures from the past rather than on real people in the
present, there will be at best misunderstanding, and at worst intractable problems.
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The idea is the interpretation of transference such that effects of emotional-relational schema are brought
directly into the therapeutic relationship.
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TheCore Conflictual Relationship Themesis an empirical method to studying transference.
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Psychoanalytic therapy is designed to recognize transferences and to bring them into consciousness.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy: changing emotions by thought.
Philosophers of these two schools were among the first emotion researchers in the West.
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They recommended shifts in attention, from irrational desires to more worthwhile ones.
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In modern psychology, this is the regulation of emotions.
Epicureans were the first to discover the unconscious in the West.
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Stoics thought that because emotions derive from desires, therefore to free oneself from crippling and
destructive emotions, one should extirpate almost all desires.
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Roots in Epicureans and Stoics, two schools of ethical philosophy in which, following Aristotle, emotions were
understood as evaluations of events in relation to desires and goals.
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Writing has become one of the main means for reflecting on, and becoming conscious of, the meanings of
emotions.
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Patterns of appraisal that cause anxiety and depression tend to involve contextual evaluations that are
arbitrary, absolute, and personalizing.
Beckdeveloped the cognitive-behavioural therapy, based on teaching people how to recognize and avoid errors of
evaluation about the incidents that lead to emotions.
Emotion-based therapy: changing emotions by emotions.
Emotions signal some goal or concern is affected and if it is only partly known, an emotion may be our best
clue to the importance of this concern.
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With recognition and expression, primary emotions and their origins become more comprehensible -
they become more intentional, and the implications for the relationships become clearer.
Therapy consists of encouraging a fuller experience of primaryemotions.
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Secondary emotions derive from, or have been changed from, or have emerged to cover up, certain
primary emotions that were unacceptable.
Often when primary emotions are not known, or accepted, they can metamorphose into secondary
Some clients experience emotions too much and this is called secondaryemotions (what psychoanalysts call
defenses).
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The goal of emotion-based therapy is to change an emotion by means of another emotion.
Chapter 14. Psychotherapy, Consciousness, and Well-being
Tuesday, April 19, 2011
3:00 PM
PSYC18 Page 1
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