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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes; Just like a textbook

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Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 3 The Development of Evolutionary Theory Charles Darwin biological evolution changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time Many behavioural differences among organisms, both within and across species, correspond to genetic and other biological differences Understanding these differences and their evolution allows psychologists to understand behaviour in terms of its possible origins and adaptive significance Adaptive significance the effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions What events and conditions in a persons lifetime might contribute to a tendency to seek or to avoid novelty What function does novelty seeking serve in helping people adapt to the changing circumstances of life What events and conditions in the evolution of our species favoured or punished novelty seekers; what functions has novelty seeking served in the history of humankind? Ultimate causes evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of a species over generations - we behave as we do behave we are members of the human species Proximate causes immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behaviour - because we have learned to act in special ways Both biology and environment contribute to our personal development No theory of behaviour can be complete without considering the role of evolution Culture the sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of people The Voyage of the Beagle Beagles mission - was to explore and survey the coast of South America and to make hydrographic www.notesolution.com measurements worldwide - collect specimens - Darwin - in theology - the doctrine of essentialism Plato - all living things belong to a fixed class of kind, defined by an essence that characterizes it alone The Origin of Species (Darwins book)(1838) 1836 ended voyage back to England discover many ways that animals and plants adapt to their environments Artificial selection a procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics Natural selection the consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially. Within a given population, some animals the survivors will produce more offspring than will other animals - possesses a characteristic that helps it to survive or adapt to change in its environment = live longer and produce more offspring Natural Selection Mayr (2000) evolution can be traced to four insights: 1) species are not fixed, but rather change over time 2) evolution is a branching process, implying that all species descend from a single common ancestor 3) evolution is continuous, with gradual changes 4) evolution is based on natural selection key success of Darwin natural selection with 2 premises 1) individuals within a population show variability in heritable behavioural and physical characteristic 2) the capacity of the environment to sustain a population of any species is limited, producing competition reproductive success the number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to the number of viable offspring produced by other members of the same species the evolutionary bottom line is not physical strength but reproductive success www.notesolution.com
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