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Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 1

Psychology chapter 1 notes.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology- The study of behavior Chapter 1 What is Psychology • Psychology is the study of behavior Some of the roots of psychology come from a habit we have called animism which • was attributing souls to almost everything • We believe that everything that we do not know about might have a soul however once we understand everything physically the idea of the soul disappears • Rene Descartes believed that the human body is a highly complex machine. He be- lieved in dualism which is the idea that humans have a soul and free will • John locke went further and even categorized the mind itself into a machine and be- lieved in empiricism since knowledge was acquired through experience alone • Locke was attempting to understand “learning” • James Mill believed in Materialism which is the notion that we are no different from an- imals and it is most commonly believed today! • Luigi Galvani proposed the idea that the human body was an electrical machine He put electrical current through frog legs in order to make them move coming to the con- clusion that the body is truly an electrical machine • Johannes Muller in his doctrine of specific nerve energies stated that a basic message could be sent along all nerves with the same electrical impulse. He was the first to cut open a body and analyze all of the nerves or wires and notices all wires lead to a specif- ic part of the brain • Pierre Florens came up with the notion that the result of removing the brain depends on which part you remove • Paul Broca was the first to apply pierre’s logic to humans when he performed an au- topsy on a stroke victim and claimed he had found the speech centre of the brain when he analyzed many dead victims which agreed to put their bodies for scientific research. They all had problems in the SAME spot • Fritsch and Hitzig added more studies and concluded that the body appeared to be mapped out on the surface of the brain • The Phrenology phenomenon states that if you use a certain part of the brain consis- tently, like a muscle it will grow • Herman and Hemholtz found the approximate speed of an impulse through a hand ex- periment. One person would squeeze then the next and the next until it reaches the end of the chain. Then it is just simple math. • Ernst Weber worked with weights and put one in each hand and it took an overall dif- ference of 10% for a person to notice the difference and this was a constant ratio • Wilhelm Wundt was the first Psychologist and wrote the first psychology book called “Principles of Physiological Psychology”. • Wundt believed that through introspection one could come to understand the building blocks of consciousness, a school of psychology called structuralism • Because of the ideas of Darwin, a new school of psychology was formed known as Functionalism and assumed that thinking performed a function which was to produce useful and adaptive behaviors • William james was the strongest believer in Functionalism • Hermann Ebbinghaus started studying memory in scientific ways and used short form syllabus to remember more and prevent baggage. He wanted to know how long it would take for him to keep something permanently in the mind or how long after it would take for him to forget it. If he already learned something before he could relearn it faster! • Sigmund Freud formulated a psychodynamic theory of personality and marked the be- ginning of clinical psychology. He focused on the trick of the mind into disease even though the person is not suffering at all and said that everyone desires sex and we all have different ways of outputting that desire whether it be through music or sports or suck hair • He also focused on unconscious influences on behavior and these views were both structural and functional • Behavioralism came next in psychology and it argued that psychology is only the rela- tion between people’s environment basically saying that the mind is too complex to mea- sure except if it is done through behavior. The only controlled variable is stimuli and the only observable variable is response Examples: • Thorndike and the law of effect states that if one route is well known to a cat in a maze then it will take the same route next time to be more efficient • Pavlov and the idea of classical conditioning states that if you do something you ex- pect a reaction such as when you shoot a gun you e
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