Textbook Notes (363,327)
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Psychology (9,573)
PSYA02H3 (932)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 10 LanguageUse of language is behaviourhighly organized patterns of motor activityMost important besides sexual behaviour of all human behaviours Psycholinguisticsbranch of psychology devoted to study of verbal behaviouroConcerned with human cognition more than rules Auditory system recognizes patterns underlying speech rather than just soundsBelin Zatorre and Ahadused fMRI scan to find regions of brain responded more when people heard human vocalization rather than only natural soundoRegions located in temporal lobe on auditory cortexoLeft hemisphere showed greater contrast in response when reacting to natural speech or scrambled speech oShows left hemisphere plays larger role in analyzing detailed information of speechrecognizing special aspects of speechPhonememinimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular languageoVoiceonset timedelay between initial sound of a consonant and onset of vibration of vocal cordpa has 006 second delay over baScott Blank Rosen and Wiseused PET scans to find areas that responded to natural and unintelligible speech and only to intelligible speech even if highly distortedGanongfound that perception of a phoneme is affected by sound it followsSanders Newport and Nevillelarger units of speech established by learning and experienceoExamined brain wave activity when people listened to continuous string of sounds We are able to recognize sound because of contextContext affects perceptions of words through topdown processingMeaning of a sentence is conveyed bywords chosen order combined affixes attached to beginning or end pattern of rhythm and emphasis of speaker and knowledge of world Syntactical rulesgrammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases clauses and sentencesoUnderstanding of it is automaticKnowlton Ramus and Squirefound patients with anterograde amnesia were able to learn artifical grammar even though they lost ability to form explicit memoriesGabrieli Cohen and Corkinsuch patients unable to learn meaning of new wordsSyntax and word meaning involve different types of memory and brain mechanismSignalled by oWord order word class function words affixes word meaning and prosodyWord orderplays important role in English but not all languageWord classrefers to grammatical categories noun pronoun verb adjective but doesnt need to be learned to understand meaningFunction wordspreposition article or other words that conveys little of meaning of sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structureoExpress relationship between content words and are important syntactical toolsContent wordsnoun verb adjective or adverb that conveys meaningAffixessound or group of letters that is added to beginning of word prefix or end suffixSemanticsmeaning and study of meanings represented by wordsProsodyuse of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by particular words an important means of communication of emotionoStress rhythm changes in pitchNoam Chomsky suggested newly formed sentences are represented in brain in terms of meaningoDeep structureessential meaning of a sentence without regard to grammatical features surface structure of sentence that are needed to express it in wordsoSurface structuregrammatical feature sentence takeoTo convey meaning deep structure must be converted to surface structure in brainConduction aphasiadifficulty repeating words and phrases but can understand them oMost psychologists disagree with Chomsky about particular nature of cognitive mechanisms through which deep structure is translated into surface structureScriptscharacteristics events rules etc that are typical of particular situationlearned through observing or from others assists comprehension of verbal discourseAreas involved in perceiving comprehending and producing speech are all in different areas of brainSpeech ProductionTo produce meaningful speech we must convert perception memories and though into speechLocated in frontal lobesBrocas aphasiasevere difficulty in articulating words especially function words caused by damage that includes Brocas area a region of frontal cortex on left speechdominant side of brain also damage to other regions of frontal lobe and underlying subcortical white matter
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