Pg 589-623 Ch. 18 April 5, 2010
Trephining a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person.
Presumably, the opening was made to permit evil spirits to leave the victims head.
People thought to be unwilling hosts for evil spirits were subjected to curses or insults deigned
to persuade the demons to leave. If this approach had no effect, exorcism was attempted, to
make the persons body an unpleasant place for devils to reside. Other rituals included beatings,
starving, near drowning and the drinking of foul tasting concoctions.
Johann Wier, a sixteenth century physician, was among the first to challenge practices intended
to combat witchcraft. He argued that most people who were being tortured and burned for
practicing witchcraft in fact suffered from mental illness.
Most of the mental institutions were extraordinarily inhumane. Patients were often kept in
chains and sometimes wallowed in their own excrement. Those who displayed bizarre catatonic
postures or who had fanciful delusions were sometimes exhibited to the public for a fee.
Pinel believed that most mental patients would respond favorably to kind treatment. As an
experiment, he removed the chains, took them out of the dungeons and saw great
Regardless of theoretical orientation, all therapists have in common a strong commitment to
helping people solve their problems. Some psychotherapists adopt approaches to treatment
that fit their own views of why people behave the way they do.
Electric approach a form of therapy in which the therapist uses whatever method he/she feels
will work best for a particular client at a particular time. This often means combining aspects of
several different treatment approaches according to a particular clients problem and personal
Insight therapies view behavior as a symptom of deeper underlying psychological problems.
Once a patient understands the causes of his/her problems, the problems and the maladaptive
behaviors will cease. Insight will lead to cure.
Psychoanalysis a form of therapy aimed at providing the client with insight into his/her
unconscious motivations and impulses; developed by Freud.
The purpose of therapy is to create a setting in which clues about the origins of intrapsychic
conflict given by the client. Then, by exposing the client to these clues, he or she will gain insight
into the problem.
Freud argued that people are biased observers of their own problems and thus that their
interpretations cannot be accurate. While the psychoanalysts primary role is interpretation, the
clients main job is to provide the psychoanalyst with something to interpret. This is not easy for
the client because they invoke defense mechanisms. Successful treatment depends not only on
the psychoanalysts interpretations, but also on ensuring that the patient has the capacity to
understand and integrate what is learned in therapy.
Free association a psychoanalytical procedure in which the client is encouraged to speak
freely, without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts or ideas.
Freud used free association in which he encouraged his patients to talk freely without worrying
about meaning. He also did not make eye contact with his patients to minimize influence.
Additionally, he believed dream interpretation was crucial, however had to be interpretedPg 589-623 Ch. 18 April 5, 2010
clearly because the manifest content masks the latent content because the latent content is
anxiety provoking and causes discomfort.
Resistance a development therapy in which the client becomes defensive, unconsciously
attempting to halt further insight by censoring his/her true feelings.
Transference the process by which a client begins to project powerful attitudes and emotions
onto the therapist. Whereas free association uncovers many of the relevant events and facts of
the clients life, transference provides the means for re-living significant early experiences.
Counter-transference the process by which the therapist projects his/her emotions onto the
client. Unlike transference, Freud believed counter-transference to be unhealthy and
undesirable. To be effective, the analyst must remain emotionally detached and objective in
his/her appraisal of the clients disclosures.
Psychodynamic therapy a variation on the Freudian approach to therapy in which therapists
search for unconscious conflicts and motivations but do not adhere strictly to Freuds
conceptions of psychoanalysis. Ex: they still focus on achieving insight but place less emphasis
on psychosexual development and more on interpersonal and social experiences.
Rather than functioning merely to mediate between the demands of the id and superego, they
believe that the ego is a proactive component in a persons overall psychological functioning. In
other words, compared to Freud, psychodynamic therapy today are seen as being less
constrained by the minds unconscious forces than Freud had asserted.
Brief psychodynamic therapy goal is to understand and improve the client