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Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Pg 589-623 Ch. 18 April 5, 2010 Trephining a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person. Presumably, the opening was made to permit evil spirits to leave the victims head. People thought to be unwilling hosts for evil spirits were subjected to curses or insults deigned to persuade the demons to leave. If this approach had no effect, exorcism was attempted, to make the persons body an unpleasant place for devils to reside. Other rituals included beatings, starving, near drowning and the drinking of foul tasting concoctions. Johann Wier, a sixteenth century physician, was among the first to challenge practices intended to combat witchcraft. He argued that most people who were being tortured and burned for practicing witchcraft in fact suffered from mental illness. Most of the mental institutions were extraordinarily inhumane. Patients were often kept in chains and sometimes wallowed in their own excrement. Those who displayed bizarre catatonic postures or who had fanciful delusions were sometimes exhibited to the public for a fee. Pinel believed that most mental patients would respond favorably to kind treatment. As an experiment, he removed the chains, took them out of the dungeons and saw great improvement. Regardless of theoretical orientation, all therapists have in common a strong commitment to helping people solve their problems. Some psychotherapists adopt approaches to treatment that fit their own views of why people behave the way they do. Electric approach a form of therapy in which the therapist uses whatever method he/she feels will work best for a particular client at a particular time. This often means combining aspects of several different treatment approaches according to a particular clients problem and personal circumstances. Insight therapies view behavior as a symptom of deeper underlying psychological problems. Once a patient understands the causes of his/her problems, the problems and the maladaptive behaviors will cease. Insight will lead to cure. Psychoanalysis a form of therapy aimed at providing the client with insight into his/her unconscious motivations and impulses; developed by Freud. The purpose of therapy is to create a setting in which clues about the origins of intrapsychic conflict given by the client. Then, by exposing the client to these clues, he or she will gain insight into the problem. Freud argued that people are biased observers of their own problems and thus that their interpretations cannot be accurate. While the psychoanalysts primary role is interpretation, the clients main job is to provide the psychoanalyst with something to interpret. This is not easy for the client because they invoke defense mechanisms. Successful treatment depends not only on the psychoanalysts interpretations, but also on ensuring that the patient has the capacity to understand and integrate what is learned in therapy. Free association a psychoanalytical procedure in which the client is encouraged to speak freely, without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts or ideas. Freud used free association in which he encouraged his patients to talk freely without worrying about meaning. He also did not make eye contact with his patients to minimize influence. Additionally, he believed dream interpretation was crucial, however had to be interpretedPg 589-623 Ch. 18 April 5, 2010 clearly because the manifest content masks the latent content because the latent content is anxiety provoking and causes discomfort. Resistance a development therapy in which the client becomes defensive, unconsciously attempting to halt further insight by censoring his/her true feelings. Transference the process by which a client begins to project powerful attitudes and emotions onto the therapist. Whereas free association uncovers many of the relevant events and facts of the clients life, transference provides the means for re-living significant early experiences. Counter-transference the process by which the therapist projects his/her emotions onto the client. Unlike transference, Freud believed counter-transference to be unhealthy and undesirable. To be effective, the analyst must remain emotionally detached and objective in his/her appraisal of the clients disclosures. Psychodynamic therapy a variation on the Freudian approach to therapy in which therapists search for unconscious conflicts and motivations but do not adhere strictly to Freuds conceptions of psychoanalysis. Ex: they still focus on achieving insight but place less emphasis on psychosexual development and more on interpersonal and social experiences. Rather than functioning merely to mediate between the demands of the id and superego, they believe that the ego is a proactive component in a persons overall psychological functioning. In other words, compared to Freud, psychodynamic therapy today are seen as being less constrained by the minds unconscious forces than Freud had asserted. Brief psychodynamic therapy goal is to understand and improve the client
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