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PSYA02H3 (962)
Chapter 17

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders - etiology: causes or origins of diseases Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal? - abnormal refers to any departure from the norm o ex/ Einstein = abnormal - BUT the term has taken on a negative connotation as if abnormal is bad - distinction between normal and abnormal behaviour = subjective - psychological disorder = whether ones behaviour is maladaptive o if someone does something that is maladaptive, doesnt mean they have a disorder o all is very subjective Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders - caused by a interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors - some cases genetic component is SO strong, will have psychological disorder regardless of environment - several perspectives each puts emphasis on these factors The Psychodynamic Perspective - psychological disorders originate in intra-psychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind: the id, ego, and superego o conflicts between the id, ego, and superego that lead to psychological disorders - minds defense mechanism cannot produce a resolution that is adequate for all three o defense mechanisms themselves begin distorting reality - extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behavior, depression, distorted perceptions and patterns of thinking The Medical Perspective - illness of the mind - Hippocrates = black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm emotional problems - asylums were established to confine those with psychological disorders o condition of them were POOR and may have worsened their condition th th - 18 /19 century quality and compassion improved - psychological matters are based on specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system that they should be approached for treatment in the same way as physical illnesses The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective - psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that can be best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors - caused by the persons interaction with his/her environment o NOT spontaneously within the person - ex/ persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief of tension it provides - treatment??? replace the maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive ones The Humanistic Perspective - psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must EARN the positive regard of others o proper and natural personality development occurs when people experience unconditional positive regard - THUS, they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others o define their personal VALUE primarily in terms of others reactions to them - lack confidence in their abilities and feel as though they have no stable, internal value as persons - DEPRESSION!!!!! The Sociocultural Perspective - cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret their own behaviours as normal/abnormal - culture bound syndromes psychological disorders that exist and occur in certain cultures The Biopsychosocial Perspective - diathesis-stress model: accounts for psychological disorders based on the idea that psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his/her abilities to cope with them o the genes that are involved are not necessarily specific to particular disorders but may constitute a more general predisposition o the genes dont specifically CAUSE the psychological disorder rather it places a predisposition on the person to attain one may be predisposed to a psychological condition but not have encountered the stressors thatll trigger its development - biopsychosocial perspective: a view that the causes of psychological disorders can best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme - Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders o medical specialty devoted to the treatment of psychological disorders o a widely used manual for classifying psychological disorders - the DSM-IV-TR describes psychological conditions using 5 different criteria, called axes - AXIS 1 information on major psychological disorders that may develop during childhood o ex/ delirium, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, sleep disorders, dementia, amnesia - AXIS 2 personality disorders o long term maladaptive traits that impair normal functioning - AXIS 3 physical disorders, such as skin rashes or high blood pressure, accompanying the psychological disorder - AXIS 4 severity of the stress that the person has experiences o details the source of the stress and indiciates its severity - AXIS 5 describes overall level of psychological, social, or occupational functioning o estimates the extent to which a persons quality of life has been diminished by the disorder - comorbid: the appearance of two or more disorders in a single person - example of a situation from Axis 1-5 o Axis 1 alcohol dependence and major depressive disorder o Axis 2 anti-social personality disorder o Axis 3 alcohol cirrhosis o Axis 4 severe stress (divorce, loss of job) o Axis 5 GAF evaluation = 30 --> very serious impairment of functioning Some Problems with DSM-V-TR Classification - the system focuses strongly on psychological factors, thus making it biased towards psychological disorders - accuracy is not 100%...never is with psychological disorders The Need for Classification - labeling people as mentally ill has done more harm than good, thus the labeling should be eliminated completely - in the future classification of diseases must be more accurate and reliable if more will be revealed Prevalence of Psychological Disorders - 11% of Canadians suffer from Psychological disorders Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis - clinical psychologists make diagnoses + predicts peoples future behaviours
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